literature reviews

7 13 0
  • Loading ...
1/7 trang

Thông tin tài liệu

Ngày đăng: 25/11/2016, 17:09

assignment on english and american literature,litterature reviews,HIVAIDS disease,Southeast Asia..................................................................................................................................................... Name : Dang Hoang Khoi Class: 15ECE1 Date : 17 October 2016 Jacob Martin Impact of HIV/AIDS on children and young peolple in the Asia (Literature review) Introduction The AIDS epidemic in Asia is still incresing day by day In South and South-East Asia, the number of new infections in 2004 was 800,000 This brought the total number of HIVinfected people in South and South-East Asia to 7.1 million Already in 1993, the epidemic had peaked among Thai military recruits at over 4% (MOPH and CDC 2000); more than 2% prevalence of HIV among pregnant women has been recorded in Myanmar, Cambodia, Thailand and China (UNAIDS, 2002) UNAIDS estimates suggest that over half of new HIV infections are occurring among young people (15-24 year olds) – or over 7,000 new infections a day worldwide (UNAIDS 2004) In the report of USAID/UNAIDS/UNICEF (2004) estimated that there were 15 million children orphaned by AIDS at the end of 2003 Wattana Janjaroen and Suwanee Khamman (2002) wrote that in Thailand, over 4,000 children are newly infected by HIV each year, and about 63,000 children were infected with HIV by the end of 2000 Ministry of Public Health noted that the number of new infections through mother-to-child transmission in Thailand increased from 0% in 1987 to 14% in 2000 (2001) “Whilst the global community is preoccupied with combating the HIV and AIDS pandemic, particularly amongst the middle-age group, there appears to be an underreporting of its impact on the lives of the children” (Makiwane et al., 2014, p.11) The children and young people are the age-group lacks of experience and endurance to suffer and overcome these tragedies “The impact on children and young people is growing” (Summers, Kates and Murphy, 2002) Therefore, greater understanding of the impact of HIV/AIDS on children is important in the design and evaluation of programmes to support children living in difficult circumstances The aim of this research is to review studies on the impact of HIV and AIDS on the children and young people in the Asia and provides policy to protect them Impact of HIV/AIDS on children and young people First of all, “The most important direct consequence of AIDS for children and young people is the loss of their family unit, and with it their natural economic, social and emotional ‘safety net.’” (UNESCO, 2002, p.5) Apart from the problem of HIV-positive mothers abandoning their newborns out of despair, this usually means grown-up children in families affected by AIDS have to put up with living in a foster family or in either state or religious institutions In the same research, Yoktri wrote that, “this may lead them to be less wellsupervised than would be the case in a nuclear family situation, which could result in dropping out from school or attachment to unfavorable role models (gang leaders), or even entry into the sex industry or into crime” (1999, p.7) Sean Devine has conducted several studies on the psycho-social impact of the epidemic on children in families affected by AIDS He described Thai’s families where parents physically distance themselves from their children upon hearing that they are infected with HIV, apparently in a mistaken fear of infecting their children (2001) Many families, although they love the child, still keep away, they are so afraid So they hire the group of Friends Help Friends and peer groups to provide care for him at the last stage, but they not dare to provide care directly by themselves They hire those persons, let them inject drugs and feed them so that they care for their child (Hai Phong, participant in FGD of grassroots organizations) More often than not, parents not disclose their HIV-positive status to their children, leading to feelings of rejection and being unloved among children affected by AIDS All this is based on the severe consequences to children’s psychological well-being and self esteem that result from the loss of their parents to AIDS Besides, the children are suffer the discrimination from the school and society Stigma and discrimination are caused by ignorance and fear of AIDS in the community and often judgmental views community members have about AIDS – mean “bad” with HIV-positive and “good” with HIV-negative It affects directly on the study of children, Loudon et al wrote that “Stigma and discrimination, real or perceived, have been reported by many studies as being a factor deterring parents to enroll their children in school or in removing them from their studies.”(2007) In above research, young children reported losing interest in their studies, becoming depressed, and dropping out of school because of taunts by peers The children must bear several kinds of stigma and in the research “Children orphaned and made vulnerable by AIDS in the Mekong subregion”, Borthwick (2004) wrote there are a lot of type of discrimination and stigma includes exclusion, verbal abuse, harassment, involuntary separation from parents, and denial of access to services Moreover, the information about HIV/AIDS is understood in the wrong way so the children are terribly treated Many people still believe that HIV / AIDS is a highly contagious disease, including through casual contact or some people claim that only those who inject drugs or who buy and sell sex easy to infect HIV/AIDS, they consider HIV / AIDS as social evils,guilty “At the present time, people are generally aware of this problem [HIV and AIDS] They are aware that this is a social evil, it is not a disease.” (Hai Phong, participant in FGD of community leaders) The negative attitudes of community members are more painful for people living with HIV and AIDS The reproaches and criticisms enhance and exacerbate the shame felt by many Addressing these misconceptions not only would tackle one of the heaviest burdens on the well-being of persons with AIDS, but also would make sense from a prevention perspective As a consequence of losing the family unit, as well as of stigma and discrimination, children and young people end up having less access to education, health care and social services In many instances, they are shunned by community members and are actively discriminated against – this is called “enacted stigma” The saddest examples of this are community members forcing head masters of local schools to expel children from families affected by AIDS from the school.The UNICEF stated that, “ In Viet Nam, 57 percent of children affected by HIV/AIDS were attending school, sharply lower than the national average attendance rate of 90 percent” A comprehensive study in India has shown the dramatic effects of HIV on children under years of age (sample size 2,723) This study showed that HIV-infected children were 49% more likely to be underweight than non-infected and were more likely to live in the poorer or poorest of households Moreover, the KHANA report further describes a lack of general services in the field of counseling and support, and a total absence in specialized services for children To decrease stigma and discrimination experienced by children and their families affected by AIDS, the report suggest widespread community education on HIV transmission to increase understanding of the disease However, it does not address the often moralistic causes of stigma and discrimination, which are much more difficult to tackle, as Yoktri points out (Yoktri, 1999) More often than that, and strongly related to the moralistic prejudices surrounding AIDS mentioned above, people affected by AIDS feel shunned by community members, and this ‘perceived stigma’ leads to similar, be it self-imposed, barriers to seeking access to services or allowing children to go to school Merrigan and Yi, in their study on landlessness related to AIDS in northwestern Cambodia, describe what they call ‘self-stigmatization’ as “occurring when a PLWA treats him or herself in a manner consistent with stigmatization, making their lives more difficult than is necessary, because they are afraid of the effect they may have on others” (Merrigan and Yi 2001, p 16) In working towards lessening the impact of AIDS on children and youth, especially with regard to education, it is important to adopt a rightsbased approach Children – HIV-positive or negative have certain basic rights that governments in most countries of the world have promised to uphold or fulfill in numerous declarations, treaties and commitments “An environment in which human rights are respected ensures that vulnerability to HIV/AIDS is reduced, those infected with and affected by HIV/AIDS live a life of dignity without discrimination, and the personal and societal impact of HIV infection is alleviated “ (UNAIDS 1998, p in Kelly 2000b, p 32) Firstly, all children and youth have the right to receive an education (Convention of the Rights of the Child 1948; The Dakar Framework for Action 2000) Children and young people must be given the opportunity to basic education – whether they are from AIDS-affected households or not Secondly, “One of the most frequent AIDS-related rights violations suffered by children worldwide was that of their right to information on HIV/AIDS, a matter of life and death for children where the epidemic has a foothold “ (Human Rights Watch, 2002).Furthermore, preventing mother-to-child transmission because according to the World Health Organization, women made up almost half of the 37.2 million adults living with HIV/AIDS in 2004 The risk of mother-to-child transmission can be cut down to less than two per cent in some instances when a range of PMTCT interventions is adopted (UNICE, F2005, p.21) To sum up, HIV/AIDS is a deadly disease that spreads in conditions of ignorance and silence The consequences of it are borne by individuals and communities affected by it, again in silence and shame The impacts of HIV/AIDS on children about physical and mental health are extremely painful Therefore, only by shedding more light on the dynamics of vulnerability to the epidemic, by researching appropriate ways of dealing with its impact, and by seriously upscaling human and financial resources available for battling the epidemic can we stand a chance of overcoming a century-diseases References Convention of the Rights of the Child, 1948 Devine, S A Multi-sectoral Approach to Planning Services for AIDS Orphans, Sanpatong District, Chiang Mai [Thailand] Bangkok: UNICEF, 2001 Yoktri, M “AIDS… Impact On Children in Thailand.” Translated from Thai by Prue Borthwick (UNICEF), Vieng Ping Children’s Home, Chiang Mai, 1999 UNESCO, “The impact of HIV/AIDS on children and young people”, 2005 Hong, Anh and Jessica “Understanding HIV and AIDS-related Stigma and Discrimination in Vietnam”,2004 Sheldon S “The Impact of HIV/AIDS on Education”, 1994 Prof Lorraine S “Distinct Disadvantage: A Review of Children Under and the HIV/AIDS Epidemic” UNICEF East Asia and Pacific Regional Office “East Asia: Children and HIV/AIDS A call to action”, 2005 L.M Franco et al “Evidence base for children affected by HIV and AIDS in low prevalence and concentrated epidemic countries: applicability to programming guidance from high prevalence countries”, 2009
- Xem thêm -

Xem thêm: literature reviews, literature reviews, literature reviews

Gợi ý tài liệu liên quan cho bạn

Nạp tiền Tải lên
Đăng ký
Đăng nhập