Organizational behavior management john martin

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Organizational Behaviour and Management To Orla, the first of the new generation to join ‘our organization’! To Louise, Sarah and Mark, who for better or worse have also decided to join! To Jeffrey, Richard and Shona, who had no choice but to join And last but not least, to Valerie who helped to create ‘our organization’ Organizational Behaviour and Management THIRD EDITION John Martin Australia ● Canada The University of Hull ● Mexico ● Singapore ● Spain ● United Kingdom ● United States Organizational Behaviour and Management, Third Edition Copyright © Thomson Learning 2005 The Thomson logo is a registered trademark used herein under licence For more information, contact Thomson Learning, High Holborn House, 50–51 Bedford Row, London, WC1R 4LR or visit us on the World Wide Web at: http://www.thomsonlearning.co.uk All rights reserved by Thomson Learning 2005 The text of this publication, or any part thereof, may not be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, storage in an information retrieval system, or otherwise, without prior permission of the publisher While the publisher has taken all reasonable care in the preparation of this book the publisher makes no representation, express or implied, with regard to the accuracy of the information contained in this book and cannot accept any legal responsibility or liability for any errors or omissions from the book or the consequences thereof Products and services that are referred to in this book may be either trademarks and/or registered trademarks of their respective owners The publisher and author/s make no claim to these trademarks British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library ISBN 1-86152-948-1 First edition 1998, reprinted 2000 Second edition 2001, reprinted 2002 This edition 2005 Text design by Design Deluxe Typeset by Saxon Graphics Ltd, Derby Printed in Italy by G Canale & C Brief Contents Part Chapter Chapter Introduction to Management and Organizational Behaviour Organizational behaviour today Management and organizations – evolution and academic perspectives 37 Part Individuals within Organizations 77 Chapter Chapter Chapter Perception and attitude formation Personality and individual difference Learning within organizations 79 123 165 Groups and Teams within Organizations 207 Groups and teams: formation and structure Groups and teams: dynamics and effectiveness 209 249 Managing Organizations 291 Management within organizations Leadership in organizations 293 335 Managing People within an Organization 381 Managing people and stress Motivation and performance management Ethics and organizational culture 383 427 471 Managing Work Design, Technology and Structure 521 Work design and organization Technology and work Organizational structure and design 523 567 611 Managing the Processes and Dynamics of Organizations 667 Communication, decision making and negotiation Power and control Conflict and organizational politics Organizational development and change 669 711 745 789 Part Chapter Chapter Part Chapter Chapter Part Chapter 10 Chapter 11 Chapter 12 Part Chapter 13 Chapter 14 Chapter 15 Part Chapter 16 Chapter 17 Chapter 18 Chapter 19 [v] Fu l l C o n t e n t s List of Management in Action Panels List of Employee Perspective Panels List of Case Studies Guided tour Preface Acknowledgements PART Introduction to Management and Organizational Behaviour Chapter Organizational behaviour today Introduction What is organizational behaviour? Why study organizational behaviour? How to study organizational behaviour Research and organizational behaviour A first look at organizations A first look at management A first look at employees The challenges facing organizations, managers and employees Conclusions Chapter Management and organizations – evolution and academic perspectives Introduction Early organizational and management practice Studying organizations and management Scientific and administrative management The human relations and quantitative schools Systems approaches to management Sociological and other perspectives on management New thinking about organizations and management Looking into the 21st century Conclusions xiv xv xvi xvii xx xxviii 13 16 23 29 31 37 38 38 53 56 58 60 62 64 67 71 PART Individuals within Organizations 77 Chapter Perception and attitude formation 79 Introduction The significance of perception and attitude A model of perception Selection of stimuli for attention Organizing stimuli into meaningful patterns 80 80 81 84 87 [ vii ] [ viii ] Full contents Interpreting the significance of a stimulus Response behaviour to a stimulus The learning loop Person perception Attribution theory and perception Attitude formation Impression management Perception and attitudes within an organizational context Perception and attitude formation: an applied perspective Conclusions Chapter Personality and individual difference Introduction The study of individual difference Nomothetic perspectives Idiographic perspectives Other perspectives on individual difference Measuring personality and individual difference Emotion, intelligence and emotional intelligence Individual difference, perception and attitudes Organizational applications of individual difference Individual difference: a management perspective Conclusions Chapter Learning within organizations Introduction Learning, training and development Behaviourist theories of learning Cognitive approaches to learning Social and experiential learning Other approaches to learning The learning organization Knowledge management Learning within organizations Learning: a management and organizational perspective Conclusions 88 91 92 92 99 103 107 110 113 117 123 124 124 126 134 136 145 149 151 153 158 160 165 166 166 170 176 180 182 186 190 193 197 202 PART Groups and Teams within Organizations 207 Chapter Groups and teams: formation and structure 209 Introduction Groups and teams – are they different? Groups, teams and organizations The significance of groups and teams Formal and informal groups Why groups form Organizational research approaches Group formation and development Role theory and group structure Job design, technology and teams 210 210 213 216 218 220 223 229 235 239 Full contents Group formation and structure: an applied perspective Conclusions Chapter Groups and teams: dynamics and effectiveness Introduction Communication within groups and teams Analyzing behaviour within groups and teams Controlling behaviour within groups and teams Decision making within groups and teams Group dynamics Dynamics between groups Group effectiveness and satisfaction Groups, teams and organizations Group dynamics and effectiveness: an applied perspective Conclusions PART Managing Organizations Chapter Management within organizations Introduction What is management? Fayol and the management process Managing in a social world What managers Management: context influences Management roles and skills Management and diversity Management and organizational effectiveness Critical incident management Management and power – a critical reflection Meetings and humour in management Management: an applied perspective Conclusions Chapter Leadership in organizations Introduction Leaders or managers? Leaders, entrepreneurs and vision Leaders, power and virtual working Do leaders need followers? Leadership as symbolism Trait theories of leadership Style theories of leadership Contingency theories of leadership Other approaches to leadership Alternatives to leadership Leadership and the organizational lifecycle Leadership and success Leadership: an applied perspective Conclusions 240 243 249 250 250 252 254 260 261 273 275 281 284 286 291 293 294 294 297 298 302 304 311 315 317 319 322 325 328 331 335 336 336 342 344 347 349 349 350 358 361 366 367 367 372 374 [ ix ] [x] Full contents PART Managing People within an Organization Chapter 10 Managing people and stress Introduction Models of people management practice People management – issues and activities The psychological contract and work-life balance People management and the line manager Stress – what is it? Sources of stress Effects of stress Dealing with stress Managing people and stress: an applied perspective Conclusions Chapter 11 Motivation and performance management Introduction Early approaches to motivation and performance management The theories of motivation Content theories Process theories Additional perspectives on motivation Performance management and motivation Motivation and performance management: an applied perspective Conclusions Chapter 12 Ethics and organizational culture Introduction Philosophy and ethics Ethical perspectives in organizations Ethics and research Social responsibility Cross-cultural perspectives on ethics Ethics and antisocial behaviour Ethics and management Defining organizational culture The dimensions of culture Cultural frameworks The determinants of culture National culture Globalization and culture Managing culture Changing organizational culture Ethics and organizational culture: an applied perspective Conclusions 381 383 384 384 386 395 397 400 404 406 410 416 420 427 428 428 430 433 443 450 453 459 465 471 472 472 474 477 479 481 482 484 490 492 493 500 502 506 508 510 511 514 Index Briggs, A 717 British Sociological Association 12 Brooks, D.J 404 Brown, G 750 Brown, S.F 282 brownfield site 832 Browning, G 463 Bruinshoofd, A 270 Buchanan, D.A 15, 59, 235, 596, 606, 729 bullying/harassment 116, 157–8, 715, 832 Burawoy, M 720 bureaucracy, bureaucratic 52, 58, 613–17, 832 charismatic 613–14 mock 615 punishment 615 rational-legal 614 representative 615 traditional 614 Burnham, D 365–6 burnout 409, 832 Burns, T 575, 621, 781 Burrell, G 134 Bushe, G.R 557 business process re-engineering (BPR) 23, 25, 640, 806, 808, 832 Butcher, D 481, 778 Byrne, J 642 cabal 781, 832 cafeteria/flexible benefits 462–3, 832 Cameron, K 627 Cameron, K.S 747 Cameron, M.A 110 Campbell, A 644 Campion, M.A 535 Cantril, H 95 career uncertainty 405 Carpenter, D.S 700 Cattell, R.B 130–2 Caulkin, S 389 Cederblom, J 475 Champy, J 324, 808 change 29–30 applied perspective 824–5 approaches 804–5 Leavitt’s variables 805 Lewin’s forcefield model 809–10 mergers/acquisitions 805–6 re-engineering/quality approaches 806, 808–9 and chaos 816–17 contingency perspectives 810–11 Dunphy and Stace’s model 812–13 Kanter, Stein and Jick’s ‘big three’ model 814–15 Kotter and Schlesinger’s model 811–12 Plant’s model 813–14 cultural 510–11 forces acting on organizations 791, 793 business functioning 795 business structure 795 control 795 demographics 793–4 efficiency 794 fashion 795 internal pressure 795 knowledge explosion 793 rapid production obsolescence 793 impact 795–6 adaptive 796–7 crisis 796 fracturing 797 incremental 796 planned 798 strategic 796 surprise 796 unplanned 798 innovation strategy 821–4 and organizational development 799–801 power/politics interaction adaptation 802 assurance 803 ceremony 802 encouraging supportive behaviour 804 incorporation 802 managing transitional process 804 mobilizing support 804 process/purpose 802 simple first 802 structure 802 support 804 timescales 803 transition 804 [ 863 ] unexpected 804 pressure for 790–1 resistance 818 group/organizational 820–1 individual 818–20 systems perspective 815–16 and technology 592–6 change agent 817–18, 832 adopters 818 generators 818 implementers 818 chaos 816–17 charismatic leadership 362–3, 832 Child, J 300, 584, 622, 650, 702 Church, R 394 Clark, J 569, 585 Clarke, C 367 Clarke, M 778 Clarke, R 457, 764 classical conditioning 832 classical management theory 58, 617–18, 832–3 Clegg, S 586 cliques 252, 833 Clutterbuck, D 394 codes of practice 478–9 coercive power 722, 833 cognitive approach 139–41, 177–80 cognitive dissonance 106, 833 Cohen, M.D 687 Collard, R 394 Collins, P.D 652 Collinson, D 764 Collons, R.D 41 commitment 25–6, 833 communication 670–2, 833 applied perspective 699–705 bad news beware of rumour mill 701 keep it personal 701 offer support 701 plan for business as usual 701 tell it like it is 701 time it carefully 701 and conflict 759, 766 control of channels 775–6 and the law 679, 681 management automation 673 limitation 672 [ 864 ] Index procedure 673 separation 673 teamwork 673 methods electronic 674–5, 679 non-verbal 674 oral 674 written 674 model 675 decoding 676 encoding 676 feedback 677 noise 677 source/receiver 676 transmission channel 676 non-verbal 677–8 body language 678 environment 678 paralanguage 678 proxemics 678 temporal 678–9, 680 processes 673 co-ordination 674 information 674 personal expression 674 visioning 674 company doctor 341, 833 competency 456–7, 833 compliance 25, 833 compulsory sociability 491, 833 Conant, H 533 conditioned 10, 130, 833 conflict 746, 833 applied perspective 770–81 consequences 756–7 autocratic leadership 758 less communication 759 low-quality staff 758 training 758 forms 750–6 group 754 factionalism 755–6 strikes and lock-outs 755 work restriction 755 work-to-rule 755 handling strategies avoidance 768–9 clarity/openness 765 collaboration/problemsolving 769 competitive/authoritarian 769 compromise 769 procedure 766–8 signals 765 smoothing/ accommodating 768 style/structure 766 training/socialization 766 individual absence and leaving 754 attitude 754 choice 753 ethical dilemmas 750 interpersonal disputes 750, 753 misuse of resources 753 politicking and power 753 rumour and gossip 753 sabotage 750 work manipulation 753 model 687 customer experience/ organizational functioning 215, 833 decision making 766, 833 perspectives capitalism forces minimization 762–3 control as imperative 763 institutionalized conflict 763–4 labour process theory 761 labour as special focus of attention 762 labour as unique commodity 762 Marxism 760–1 pluralism 759 unitarianism 760 as resistance to control 764–5 sources 746–7 intergroup 749 interorganizational 749–50 interpersonal 747–8 intragroup 748 intraorganizational 749 intrapersonal 747 conformity see group conformity Conger, J 362, 363 consensual organizations 647–8 authority 647 differentiation of labour 647 former Yugoslavia 648 incentive structures 647 kibbutz 648 mondragon 648 recruitment/advancement 647 rules 647 social control 647 social relations 647 Contenau, G 40 content theories of motivation 431, 433–43, 833 contingency model 620–3, 659, 833 and change 810–15 change/complexity 622 external factors 621 institutional arrangements 622 internal factors 621–2 and leadership 358–61 managerial perceptions/objectives 622 multiple perspectives 622 organizational capability, will, politics 622 work organization 542–3 continuous improvement 456, 833 contract approach to ethics 475–6, 833 libertarian 476 restricted 476 control 585–7, 618–19, 712, 729, 833 applied perspective 736–9 and conflict 763, 764–5 discipline hierarchy 739 economic 730 form/characteristics 730–2 hierarchy/authority 733–4 output 732 process 732 skill 734 social 735 structure 733 technology 735 work design 732–3 physical 729–30 political 730 psychological 730 and resistance 735–6 Cook, T 297 Cooper, C 158, 489, 500 Cooper, C.L 21, 131 Corbitt, T 597 Cordeniz, J.A 464 Cordes, C.L 409 corporate anorexia 640, 833 Index corporate governance 478, 833 corporate social responsibility 833 Costa, P.T 133 countercultures 499–500, 833 Courpasson, D 737 Covey, S 70 Cox, C.J 131 Cox, T 408 Crabb, S 29 Cray, D 491, 492 crisis management 319–21, 833 Crisp, R.J 96 critical incidents research 441, 833 critical theory dialectical/contradictory 54 embedded 53 multi-dimensional 54 reflexive 53 socially transforming 54 Croft, J 483 Crozier, M 615 cultural web 498, 833 culture 388–9, 490–1, 833 applied perspective 511–14 changing 510–11 determinants 500–2 dimensions 492–3 frameworks 493 Deal and Kennedy’s cultural profile 496–8 Handy’s four types 493–4 Ouchi’s type Z companies 495 Peters and Waterman’s excellence 495–6 sub-and counter-cultures 499–500 Trice and Beyer’s organizational culture 498–9 and globalization 506–8 influences on motivation 452 levels of analysis 491–2 managing 508–10 national 308, 310, 502–4 Hofstede’s perspectives 504–5 Trompenaars’ perspective 505–6 and work organization 543–4 Currie, R.M 56, 429, 527 Curson, C 549 cycle model of decision making 691–2, 833 Cyert, R.M 23, 703 Dale, B.G 394, 808 Dalton, M 219 Dansereau, F 361 Dany, F 737 Dawkins, W 400 De Dreu, C.K.W 748 De Grazia, S 47 Deal and Kennedy’s cultural profile 496–8 Deal, T.E 472, 490, 496–8, 543, 619 Deaux, K 115 Deci, E.L 450 decision making 670, 681–3, 833 applied perspective 701–5 approaches 683–4 brainstorming 684 problem-solving preferences 684–6 and conflict 766 group communication 250–2 models conflict 687 cycle 691–2 political 687 pragmatic 691 programmed/nonprogrammed 687, 689–91 rational/restricted rationality 686 and power 725–9 within groups/teams 260–1 delayering 17, 833 delegated authority 240, 833 delegation 324, 833 Dent, J 738 DePaulo, B.M 94 determinism 585, 612–13 development 166, 167, 196, 390 personality 154–5 devil’s advocate 833 Dewe, P 411 Dickson, W.J 227 diffusion of responsibility 325, 833 Digman, J.M 133 discipline 50, 739 discrimination 157 division of labour 527, 833 Domingo, R 579 Doolin, B 804 Dougherty, C.J 475 Dougherty, T.W 409 downshift 358, 833 [ 865 ] downsizing/rightsizing/delayering 241, 833 drives 428, 429, 834 Drucker, P 302, 343 Dulewicz, V 150, 151, 314, 457 Dunford, R.W 729, 815 Dunkerley, D 586 Dunphy, D 801, 812–13 Early, P.C 449 Edmondson, A.C 283 education 166 Edwards, P.K 679, 729, 738 Elliott, B.B.R 511 Emery, F 539 Emler, N 297 emotion 149–51 emotional intelligence (EI) 149–51, 834 employee assistance programmes (EAP) 415, 834 employee involvement 24, 392–5, 734, 834 downward communication 393 financial participation 394 representative participation 394 upwards problem solving 394 employees 23–9 challenges facing 29–30 definition 23–4 impact of technology 600 low-quality staff 758 relationship with management 24–9 employer of choice 390, 834 empowerment 241, 834 enacted role 236, 834 Ensley, M.D 344 entrepreneurial structure 627, 629 environment 250, 834 equity theory 446–8 Erez, M 449 ergonomics 528–9, 834 Erikson, E.H 136 ethics 386–8, 472, 834 antisocial behaviour 482–4 business 478 codes of practice 478–9 contract approach 475–7 corporate/public interest 485–6 cross-cultural perspectives 481–2 and management 484–90 obligations at work 486–7 [ 866 ] Index organizational perspectives 474–5 privacy 487 research 477–9 role of work in society 485 social responsibility 479–81 utilitarian approach 475 whistleblowing 489–90 working at home/work-life balance 488–9 Ettinger, J.C 343 Etzioni, A 728, 736 Evans, B.K 409 Evans, J 536 Evenson, R 449 excellence culture 495–6 expectancy theory of motivation 359–60, 443–6, 834 expected role 236, 834 expert power 724, 834 extrinsic motivator 432, 834 extroversion 129, 834 Eysenck, H.J 124, 128, 130, 138, 141 Ezzamel, M 738 Falbe, C.M 774 Fayol, H 20, 297–8, 300, 301 federal organization 644, 834 feedback 677, 799 Feiner, M.C 373 Feldman, D.C 234 Feloni, J 700 Felstead, A 397 felt fair 392, 834 Ferguson, E 134 Festinger, L 106 Fiedler, F.E 358–9, 717 Fiedler’s contingency model 358–9 Fielding, N 477 fight or flight response 400, 834 Filler, B.E 529 Fisher, D.G 409 Fisher, R 697, 769 Fitszimmons, J.A 307 Fitzsimmons, M.J 307 Flam, H 149 Fletcher, C 456 flexible firm 548–9, 639–40, 834 financial 639 functional 639 numerical 639 Flin, R 320, 321 Flood, R.L 394, 815 focused deviancy 282, 834 Follett, M.P 617 forcefield analysis model 809–10, 834 Ford, H 546 Ford, J 395 Fordism 65, 544–7, 834 Fores, M 300 Forester, T 599, 601 formal group 473, 834 Foucault, M 433, 720, 748 Fox, A 24 frame of reference 9–10, 834 Franco, L.A 684 free association 136, 834 Freeman, R.E 17 French, J.R.P 345, 722 French, W.L 395 Freud, S 136–8 Friedman, H.S 157 Frost, B 409 functional foremanship 298, 834 Furnham, A 126 garbage can model of decision making 687, 834 Garcia, J.E 359 Gardiner, M 317 Gardner, W.L 364 Garrahan, P 112, 461, 580, 682 gatekeeper 158, 834 Gelade, G.A 398 Generation X employees 70 George, C.S 44–5, 47, 51, 429, 612 Gergen, K.J 66 Gerver, I 282 Gharajedaghi, J 26 Ghoshal, S 506 Giacalone, R.A 482, 489 Giddens, A 619 Giles, E 580 Gill, J 12 Gillespie, R 59, 281 globalization 506–8 Glover, C 278, 684 Glover, I 300 goal theory 448–50 Goffee, R 341 Gold, J 394, 396 golden handcuff 546, 834 Goldstein, S.G 557 Goleman, D 150 Gomez, C 544 Gould, M 644 Gouldner, A.W 540 Gowland, D 660 Graham, C.R 233 Grainer, S 394 grapevine 219, 834 graphology 148–9, 834 great man view of leadership 349, 834 Green, C.N 615 Greenberg, E.S 648 Greenberg, J 252 Greenburg, J 482, 489 greenfield 581 greenfield site 834 Greiner, L 624, 625 Gretton, I 642 Griffin, R.W 15, 54, 409, 775 Griffith, S.B 41 group 210–11 affinity 210 behaviour 252–4 authority 258–60 perception/attitudes 254, 256–7 socialization 257–8 cohesion 263–4, 834 communication 250 communicaton 834 conflict 754–6 conformity 256, 835 decision making 250–2, 260–1, 835 risk 264–7 development 231–4, 835 adjourning 233 beginning of communication/decisi on making 232 forming 233 initial trust/membership 232 norming 233 ongoing maintenance/control 232–3 performance improvement 232 performing 233 storming 233 dynamics 217, 261–3, 835 attitudes 274 between groups 273–5 cohesion 272 decision making 272 determinants 270–3 effectiveness 284–6 Index Freud/psychotherapy 268–70 goals 271 inter-group relations 274 interpersonal relationships 273 leadership 272 member characteristics 271 norms 271 objectives 273 overlap 275 resource competition 273–4 roles 271 size 271 substitutability 275 task competition 273 uncertainty 274 effectiveness/satisfaction 275–81 formation 229–31, 240–3 norms 220, 227 organizational 210 resistance to change 820–1 self-interest 210 structure 235–9 leadership 235 liking 235 power 235 role 235 status 235 see also team groups 213–16, 834 activity groupings 214 boundary spanning 214 British experience 224 formal 218 decisions 218 management 219 tasks 218 teams 218 technology 218 Hawthorne studies 224–5 bank writing observation room study 227–9 illumination experiments 225 interview programme 226–7 relay assembly test room study 225–6 hierarchical differentiation 214 informal 219–20 grapevine 219 marketplace bureaucracy 219 shadow organizations 219 instrumental value of 835 and organizations 281–4 professional 214 reasons for formation 220–3 significance 216–18 dynamic basis of behaviour 217 necessity 216–17 specialism groupings 214 types within an organization 835 and work organization 538–9 groupthink 267, 835 invulnerability 267 morality 267 pressure 268 rationalization 267 values 268 Grugulis, I 510 Grunes, 96 Guilford, J.P 150 Gwyther, M 328 habituation 85, 835 Hackman, J.R 533 Haire, M 96, 155 Hall, C.S 124 Hall, L 294, 400, 405 Hall, M 679 halo (horns) effect 91, 835 Hammer, M 324, 552, 808 Hampden-Turner, C 509 Handy, C 216, 302, 349, 403, 405, 493–4, 500, 644, 645–6, 649–50, 713, 715, 724, 725 Handy’s cultural types 493–4 Haney, C 312 Harding, N 395 Harkins, S.G 224 Harrington, H.J 808 Harris, H 317 Harris, L.C 722 Harris, M 650 Harrison, E.F 686 Harrison, R 493 Hart, S.L 314 Harvey, J.H 102 Harvey, P 481 Hasenfeld, Y 646–7 Hassard, J 66 [ 867 ] Hastorf, A.H 95 Hatch, M.J 615 Hau, V.W.S 781 Haugh, H.M 500, 502 Haunschild, A 548 Hawthorne studies 4, 224–9, 257, 835 Heald, T 724 Heckscher, C 782 helicopter perspective 835 Heller, R 656 Hellriegel, D 322, 793, 818 Hendry, C 385 Herriot, P 591 Herselman, S 504 Hersey and Blanchard situation approach 355–6 Hersey, P 355–6 Herskovitts, M.J 500 Herzberg, F 441–3, 533 Herzberg’s two-factor theory of motivation 441–3 Heseltine, M 651 Hickson, D.J 503, 622 hidden agenda 835 high performance organization 398, 835 Highouse, S 116 Hill, T 597 Hilton, P 463 Hochschild, A.R 397 Hodgetts, R.M 126, 263, 463 Hoffman, L.R 271 Hofstede, G 219, 452, 504–5 Hofstede’s cultural perspectives 504–5 Hogan, J 134 Hogg, C 408 Holden, C 125, 394 Holden, L 25, 167 holding company 637 Holl, P 296 Holland, B 134 Holland, D 330 Hollway, W 433 Holton, E 454 Homans, G 229 Hornsby-Smith, M 477 Hosmer, L.T 474 House, R.J 359, 362 House’s path-goal leadership theory 359–60 Howcroft, D 583 Howell, J.M 363 Hoxie, R.F 528 [ 868 ] Index Huczynski, A.A 15, 59, 235, 729 Hull, F 652 Hulse, S.H 167 human relations movement 58–9, 835 human resource management 393, 835 human resource planning 835 human service organization 646–7 humour 325–8 Hyman, J 394 Hyman, R 764 Hyrkäs, K.H 81 Iannello, K.P 647–8 ideal type 125, 835 idiographic theories of personality 126, 134–6, 835 impression management 80, 107, 776–7 career strategies 107 managerial 109 public image 109 individual difference see personality individualism-collectivism 452, 504, 835 industrialization 576–7, 835 Indvik, J 360 influence 712, 715, 835 influence diagram 654, 656, 835 informal groups 219, 835 information technology (IT) 596–7 handling capture 596 distribution 597 manipulation 596 storage 596 Ingham, M 825 innovation 821–4 elements 824 incremental 822–3 radical 822 systems 822 instrumental approach to work 105, 835 instrumental conditioning 172–6, 835 intellectual capital 398, 835 intelligence 149–51, 835 interaction analysis 253, 835 interactive leadership 365–6 international organizations 634 agents 634 direct investment 635 exporting 634 franchising 635 functional orientation 636 geographical business units 635, 636 international division 635 licensing 634 multinational enterprise 635 product-based business units 635, 636 interpersonal, information, decisional roles 674, 677–9, 835 intrinsic motivator 432, 835 introversion see extroversion Ivancevich, J.M 400, 529 Ivery, M 398 Jackson, J.M 224 Jackson, M.C 815 Jackson, S.E 385 Jacques, E 64 Jacques, R 490 Jago, A.G 359, 360 James, G 556 Janis, I.L 264, 591, 687, 701 Japanization 578 cell 579 competition 581 continuous improvement 579 effectiveness 581 just-in-time 578–9 personnel practice 580 quality 578 social, political, economic factors 580 structure/system 580 team 579 work organization 579 Jay, A 47 Jenkins, D 619 Jensen, N 256 Jensen-Campbell, L.A 747 Jermier, J.M 366, 736, 750 Jevons, W.S 56 Jick, T.D 814 job 18, 835 analysis 529–30, 835 characteristics model 533–4, 835 description 529 design 15, 239–40, 531–5, 551–2, 588–9, 732–3 enlargement 532–3, 836 enrichment 533–4, 836 evaluation scheme 529, 836 nature of 524–7 rotation 532, 836 simplification 531, 836 Johlberg, and Ryncarz, 484 Johnson, G 480, 498, 793, 805–6 Johnson, P 12 Johnson, R 106 Jones, F 447, 685 Jung, C.G 139–41 just-in-time (JIT) 836 Kahn, E.F 818 Kahn, R.L 623 Kalleburg, A.L 580 Kant, I 473 Kanter, R.M 618, 814, 818 Kanungo, R.M 362 Kaplan, R.S 457 karoshi 400, 836 Katz, D 106, 219, 314, 623 Katzenbach, J.R 211, 214 Kedia, B.L 369 Keller, R.T 263 Kelley, H.H 101 Kelly, G 143–5, 450 Kelly’s attribution theory 450 Kennedy, A 472, 490, 496–8, 543 Kennedy, G 670 Kennedy, K.W 529 Kerr, S 366 Kieser, A 622 Kilbridge, M 533 Kilman, R.H 490 Kirwan-Taylor, H 371, 640 Kiuchi, T 300 Kivimaki, M 408 Klein, H.J 224 Klemm, F 570–3 Klimoski, R.J 148 Kline, P 138 Knights, D 324 knowledge management 190–1, 836 Koch, C 776 Kolakowski, L 134 Kolb, D.A 181, 511 Konsynksi, B.R 597 Kopelman, R.E 556 Koslowsky, M 718 Kotter, J 737, 806, 811–12, 818 Krishnamurti, C 612 Kuhnert, K.W 362 Kunzmann, U 151 Kuratho, D.F 126 Index labour process theory 720–1, 836 and conflict 761 debate 583 laissez faire 836 Lamb, J 109 Lammers, C.J 503 Lampel, J 637 Lane, F.C 44, 45 lankford, S 560 LaNuez, D 736, 750 Larken, J 321 Larsen, H.H 398 Laurent, A 219 Law of requisite variety see requisitie variety Law, S 570 Lawler, E.E 445–6, 456 Lawrence, P.R 575, 612, 621 leadership 336, 836 action-centred 364–5 alternatives 366–7 applied perspective 372 dealing with colleagues 373–4 enhancing management’s position 372 increased control 374 increasing operational effectiveness 372–3 attribution theory 364 autocratic 758 breakthrough 342–3 charismatic 362–3 contingency theories 358 Fiedler’s 358–9 House’s path-goal 359–60 Vroom, Yetton, Jago model 360–1 followers 347–8 innovation/entrepreneurship 343–4 interactive 365–6 management difference complexity of 339 context 341 meaning of terms 336–8 purpose 341 role 339–41 scope 341–2 situation 341 organizational lifecycle 367 power/virtual working 344–7 style theories artists, craftsmen, technocrats 356–8 Blake and Mouton’s grid 353–5 early studies 350–1 Hersey and Blanchard’s situation approach 355–6 Likert’s four systems 351–2 Tannenbaum and Schmidt continuum 352–3 success 367–72 as symbolism 349 trait theories 349–50 transactional/transformational model 362 vertical dyad linkage model 361–2 visionary 344 learning action learning 186–7 behaviourist theories classical 170–1 instrumental 172–6 cognitive approach 177–80 culture 187 definition 167–9 feedback 178–9 loop 92 organizational perspective 197–202 social/experiential 181–2 socialization 183 styles 183–5 talent, skill, competency 186 TOTE 179–80 learning organization 188–9, 836 Leavitt, H.J 250, 805, 823 Lee, R.T 770 Legge, K 25, 623, 659 legitimate power 724, 836 Leisinger, K.M 481 Lengnick-Hall, M.L 398 Lepak, D.P 389 Lewin, K 261, 809–10 Lewis, P 362 Leys, W.A.R 476 Likert, R 215, 345, 351–2, 717 Likert’s four systems of management 351–2 Lincoln, J.R 580 Lindblom, C.E 703 Lindzey, G 124 line manager 397–400, 651, 836 line and staff functions 651–2, 836 [ 869 ] linking pin model 215, 836 Linstead, S 718 Lippit, R 350 Littlefield, D 509 Locke, E.A 447, 448–9 Locke’s goal theory 448–50 loco parentis 836 locus of control 419, 836 Lorsch, J.W 575, 612, 621 Losey, M 17 Lothian, N 89 Luckmann, T 10 Luddite 50–1, 836 Lukes, S 720 Lussato, B 542, 617 Luthans, F 304, 317, 409, 463, 714, 724, 728 Lynch, R 295 McCabe, D 324 McCalman, J 606 McCann, D 271, 277, 279, 283, 285 McCanse, A.A 353 McClelland, D.C 440–1, 729 McClelland’s acquired needs theory of motivation 440–1 Maccoby, M 4523 Maccoby’s social theory 452–3 McCrae, R.R 133 McGregor, D 276, 348, 450, 495 McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y 274, 450, 836 Machiavelli, Niccolo 47–8 McHugh, D 15, 53, 64–5, 281, 403, 418, 490, 496, 515, 659, 761 McKee, L 500, 502 McKelvey, W 38 McKenna, E 152, 403, 409, 418, 419, 686 Mackenzie, R.A 302, 327 McKinsey 7-S framework 495–6, 836 Maclagan, P 436 McLoughlin, I 585 Mahoney, J 478, 482 Mainiero, L.A 687 Makin, P.J 149 Malhotra, Y 808 Mallory, G.R 491, 492 management 294, 836 accounting 298 activity 18 administrative 298 [ 870 ] Index applied perspective 328–31 attitude 22 challenges facing 29–30 commercial 297 context influences 304–6 functional responsibilities 308 levels of management 310–11 location, organizational/nation al culture 308, 310 manufacturing/service orientation 307 public/private sector 306–7 size of organization 308 technology 308 critical incident 319–21 definition 294–7 diversity 315–17 enhancing 372 Fayol model 297–8 financial 297 first look 16–20 function 19–20 future possibilities 67–70 impact 20–1 leadership differences 336–42 loco parentis 20 meetings and humour 325–8 need for 20–2 new thinking 64–7 organizational effectiveness 317–19 planning 836 and power 322–5 in practice 302–4 principles of 836 process 836 co-ordinating 298 commanding 298 controlling 298 forecasting 298 organizing 298 planning 298 relationship with employees 24–9 roles/skills 311–15 security 297 skills needed 19 in a social world 298–302 technical 297 management practice ancient world 39–42 background 38–9 industrial revolution 48–53 medieval world 42–8 management theory 54–5 behavioural 55 classical 55 contemporary 55 integrating 55 quantitative 55 management-by-exception 732, 836 managerialism 589, 600 Mann, L 687 Mant, A 56 manufacture of consent 720, 836 manufacturing 307, 597–600 March, J.G 23, 703 Marchington, M 393 Margerison, C 271, 277, 279, 283, 285 Marion, R 816 market testing 306, 836 marketing 155–7 marketplace bureaucracy 219, 836 Martin, J 499 Martinko, M.J 364 Marxist/radical perspective on conflict 760–1, 836 masculinity-femininity 452, 504, 836 Maslow, A.H 433–8 Maslow’s hierarchy of needs 433–8 Mason, B 394 Mastenbroek, W.F.G 48 matrix structure 637–9 Matteson, M.T 400 Mayer, J.D 150 Mayes, B.T 770 Mazlish, B 348 Mead, G.H 134 meetings 325–8, 776 Meli, J.L 712 mergers and acquisitions 805–6 Merrick, N 294, 651 Merton, R.K 615 metaphor 26, 652–3, 836 method study 527, 836 Meyerson, D 499 Miceli, M.P 750 micro management 326 Miethe, T.D 489–90, 715 Milgram, S 259 Mills, C.W 553 Mintzberg, H 313, 343–4, 588, 649 Mitchell, T.R 359 mock bureaucracy 615, 837 modernism 65, 582, 837 Montgomery, D 298, 299 Mooney, J 617 Moore, J 297 Moorhead, G 409, 775, 818 moral philosophy 472, 837 naturalism 472 rationalism 473 utilitarianism 473 Moreno, J.L 252 Moreton, A 461 Morgan, G 26, 134, 484, 652, 653, 733 Morgeson, F.P 535 Moritz, S 398 Morris, D 98 Moscovici, S 264 motivate 428, 837 motivation 384, 410, 428–30, 837 applied perspective 459–65 expectancy theory of 359–60 and performance management 452–8 motivation theory 430–3 content 433 Alderfer’s ERG theory 438–9 Herzberg’s two-factor theory 441–3 McClelland’s acquired needs theory 440–1 Maslow’s hierarchy of needs 433–8 Hofstede, Trompenaars and cultural influences on motivation 452 Maccoby’s social theory 452–3 McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y 450 Ouchi’s Theory Z 450–2 process 443 Adams’ equity theory 446–8 Kelly’s attribution theory 450 Locke’s goal theory 448–50 Vroom/Porter and Lawler expectancy models 443–6 motivator 314 motive 428, 429, 837 Mount, M.K 134, 318 Mullins, L.J 818 Mulvey, P.W 224 Index Murray, H.A 141–3 Myers-Briggs, I 140 Myerson, J 544 Nadler, D 804 Nadworny, M 299 Naquyin, S.S 454 Nash, B 330 Near, J.P 750 negative power 589, 837 negotiating 693 framework 693–4 tactics avoidance 694 compromise 694 confrontation 694–5 emotion 695–6 focus on interests not positions 697 forcing 694, 697 get/give 695 getting upstairs 697 good guy/bad guy 697 insist on objective criteria 698 invent options for mutual gain 697–8 managing the minutes 697 poker face 697 probing 695 separate people from problem 697 smoothing 694 understanding not agreement 697 negotiation 670, 837 applied perspective 705 and conflict 766 negotiator characteristics 698 argument dilution 699 counterproposals 699 defend/attack spirals 699 irritators 699 label behaviour 698–9 seek information 698 summarize 698 test understanding 698 Nelson, B 404 networked organization 644 networking 257, 837 neuroticism 129, 837 Newell, S 153 Nicholls, J.R 356 Nicholson, G.J 490 noise 677, 837 Nolan, P 49 nomothetic theories of personality 126–34, 837 non-programmed decision making 687–91 Nordhoy, F 264 norms see group norms Norton, D.P 457 Occupational Personality Questionnaire (OPQ) 154 Oetzel, J.G 766 Ogbonna, E 722 Ogden, A 95 Oh, T.K 310 Oldham, G.R 533, 549 Oliver, N 114, 578, 579 Oliver, R.W 659 one best way 429, 837 open systems model 61, 837 Orbanes, P 315 Organ, D.W 615 organization 653, 837 challenges facing 29–30 chart 653–7, 837 form 13–16 future possibilities 67–70 new thinking 64–7 perceptions/attitudes 110–13 theory 53–4 organizational behaviour 837 areas of interest definition 4–5 explanatory features interdisciplinary practicalities of studying 7–8 reasons for studying 6–7 research approaches 8–13 organizational citizenship 683, 837 organizational development (OD) 790, 799, 837 action research 800 applied perspective 824–5 encounter groups 799 planned approach to OD interventions 800 process consultation 799 quality of working life 800 strategic change 800–1 survey feedback 799 organizational lifecycle 367, 625–7 phases collectivity 627 [ 871 ] decline 627 elaboration 627 entrepreneurial 627 formalization 627 responses defending 628 generating 627 preventing 628 reacting 628 organizational structure 612 applied perspective 657–60 BPR 640 bureaucracy 613–17 classical management 617–18 consensual 647–8 contingency model 620–3 design influences 648–9 centralization/ decentralization 651 clustering 650 crisis 650 delegation 650 division of labour 651 employees 649 innovation 649, 650 levels 651 line/staff functions 651–2 management 649 motivation 650 organizational metaphors 652–3 policy 649, 650 procedures 650 purpose 650 reporting relationships 650 scalar chain 652 span of control 652 steady state 649, 650 support staff 649 task 650 determinism 612–13 federal 644 flatter 640–2 flexible 639–40 frameworks 628 entrepreneurial 629 holding company 637 international 634–6 matrix/project-based 637–9 process-based 631–4 product-based 630–1 human service 646–7 lifecycle 625–8 [ 872 ] Index networked 644 organization chart 653–7 power/control 618–19 shamrock/triple I 645–6 strategy and structure 624–5 structuration theory 619–20 systems view 623–4 as theatre 619 virtual 642, 644 Orlitzky, M 275 Osborn, A 400 Ottaway, R.N 818 Ouchi, W.G 450–2, 495 Ouchi’s Theory Z 450–2, 495 Oxford Dictionary 294 Pak, H 307 paradigm 10–12, 837 Pascale, R 822, 823 path-goal theory 443, 837 Patterson, M.G 399 Pavlov, I.P 170–1 Payton, S 597 Pean, P 542 Pease, A 99 Pedler, M 314 Peiro, J.M 712 Pemberton, C 591 people management issues/activities 386 culture 388–9 employee involvement 392–5 ethics 386–8 people planning 389–90 reward/performance management 390–2 training/development 390 line management 397–400 models 384–6 psychological contract/worklife balance 395–7 stress 400–20 perceived role 236, 837 perception 80, 837 ambiguous figure 82 attitude formation 113–16 and attitudes 105–6 attribution theory 99–102 expectancy 91 external factors 84–5 contrast 85 familiarity 85 intensity 85 motion 85 novelty 85 repetition 85 size 85 halo/horns effect 91 internal factors 85–6 learning/past experience 86 motivation 86 objectives 86–7 personality 86 and language 89 and learning 92 meaningful patterns closure principle 87 continuity principle 87 figure-ground principle 87 proximity principle 87–8 similarity principle 88 mental map 81 model 81–3 organizational context actual/potential customers 110 competitors 111–12 control 112–13 employees 110 regulators 112 shareholders 112 supplier 111 wider community 110 person model 92–6 body language 97–9 projection 97 self-perception 99 stereotyping 96–7 and personality 151–2 significance 80–1 stimulus interpreting significance of 88–92 organizing into meaningful patterns 87–8 receipt of 83–4 selection of 84–7 perceptual defence 92, 837 errors 90–1, 837 set 115, 837 performance 428, 429, 837 performance management 390–2, 428–30, 837 applied perspective 459–65 and motivation 452–8 Perrin, S 282 Perrow, C.B 575 personal construct theory 143–5 personality 124, 837 and attitudes 152–3 definition 124 emotion, intelligence, emotional intelligence 149–51 environmental influences culture 125 experience 125–6 family 125 Freud and psychoanalysis 136–8 genetic influences 125 idiographic approaches 126, 134–6 Jung and cognitive approach 139–41 Kelly’s personal construct theory 143–5 management perspective 158–9 measuring graphology 148–9 psychometrics 145–8 Murray and personology 141–3 nomothetic perspectives 126–7 Big Five model 133–4 Cattell’s LQT-data 130–3 Eysenck’s types 128–30 organizational applications 153 development 154–5 discrimination 157 marketing 155–7 recruitment/selection 153 stress/bullying 157–8 testing business 158 and perception 151–2 personnel management 837 personology 141–3 Pervin, L.A 125 PESTLE analysis 30 Peters, T 495–6, 822, 823 Peters and Waterman’s excellence culture 495–6 Pettigrew, A 701 Petty, M.M 554 Pfeffer, J 104, 322, 398, 535, 713, 718, 726 Phares, E.J 149 philosophy 472–4 Pickard, J 150 Piper, W.E 263 Index Pitcher, P 356, 373 Piva, M 822 Plant, R 813, 818 Platt, L 397 pluralism 757, 837 political applied perspective 781–2 behaviour 775 control of communication channels 775–6 control of information 775 control over decisionmaking criteria 778 control over work/meeting agendas 776 creating coalitions 778 game playing 776 impression/image management 776–7 managing 778–9 use of outside specialists 776 decision making model 837 model 687 process 285, 837 strategies defensive 773 neutral 773–4 offensive 772–3 politics 746, 747, 769–72, 837 and change 802–4 Porter, L.W 445–6 Porter, M.E 624 post-Fordism 547–8, 834 post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) 409, 838 postmodernism 65–7, 838 Powell, G.N 687 power 322–5, 618–19, 838 applied perspective 736–9 balance 736–7 career 737 domain 737 intuitive 737 investment 737 maturity 737 relativity 737 repertoire 737 sensitivity 737 and change 802–4 and decision making 725–9 definition 713 and dependency 715–16 influence/authority 712–16 perspectives 716–17 Foucauldian 718–20 labour process theory 720–1 traditional 717–18 and resistance 735–6 sources 721–2 coercive 722 expert 724 information as power 725 legitimate 724 negative 725 referent 725 reward 722–3 power distance 452, 504, 838 pragmatism 691 Pratt, M.G 109 Pratt, S 367 Pries, L 589 principled negotiations 697, 838 Pritchard, R.D 447 Pritchett, P 790 private sector 306–7 problem solving 684–6, 769 process 431 consultation 799, 838 theories of motivation 443–50, 838 process-based structures 631–4 product-based structures 630–1 productivity 428, 429, 553–4, 838 professionalization of management 300–1, 838 programmed/non-programmed decision making models 687–91, 838 project-based structure 637–9 projection 97, 838 projective techniques (or test) 440, 838 psychoanalysis 136–8 psychological contract 21, 395–7, 838 psychometrics 145–8, 838 psychotherapy 268–70 public sector 306–7 Pugh, D.S 622 Punch, M 483 punishment bureaucracy 615, 838 Purcell, J 386 quality circle 556–7, 579, 838 quality of working life (QWL) 556–7, 800, 838 quantitative school 59, 60, 838 Qubein, N 452 [ 873 ] Quick, J.C 408 Quick, J.D 408 Quinn, R.E 314, 627 Rafaeli, A 109, 148 Ragan, J.W 359 Ramsey, H 393 Raphael, D.D 472, 473 rational decision making model 686, 838 rationalism 473, 585 Raven, B 345, 722 Raviv, A 650 Rawlins, N 535 Rawls, J 476 re-engineering 806–9, 838 Reason, P 12 recruitment/selection 153 Redding, S.G 491 Reed, M.I 63, 301 referent power 725, 838 Regent, P 701 reinforcement 172–6, 838 Remenyi, D 10, 129 Rentsch, J.R 242 repeated measures experiments 264, 267, 838 representative bureaucracy 615, 838 requisite variety 220, 838 restricted rationality decision making model 838 reward 390–2, 723–4 reward power 838 Rhenman, E 23 Rice, A.K 543 rich picture 654, 838 rightsizing see downsizing risky shift phenomenon 264, 838 Roberts, Z 125, 722 Robertson, I.T 149, 318 Rodrigues, C.A 367 Roethlisberger, F.j 227 Rogers, C.R 135 role 233, 838 ambiguity 237, 405, 838 conflict 238, 405, 838 definition 237, 839 incompatibility 238, 405, 839 model 312–14, 839 overload 405 overload/underload 238, 839 play 311–12, 839 set 236, 839 [ 874 ] Index stress and strain 238–9, 839 theory 235–9, 311, 839 underload 405 Ronald, M.S 484 Rosenberg, M.J 103 Rosenmann, R.H 157 Rothman, A 336 Rothschild, J 489–90, 647, 715 Rowe, C 341 Rowland, P 640 Roy, D.F 524 Rubery, J 644 Ryterband, E.C 232 sabotage 750, 839 Salaman, G 764 Salancik, G 104, 535 Salovey, P 150 Sawyer, R.D 41 Sayer, A 579 scalar chain 652, 839 Scase, R 341 Schein, E.H 801 Schermerhorn, J.R 824 Schien, V.E 799 Schlesinger, L.A 806, 811–12, 818 Schmidt, W.H 352–3 Schminke, M 657 Scholes, K 480, 793, 805–6 Schon, D.A 583 Schuler, R.S 385 Schwarzwald, J 718 science of muddling through 839 scientific management 56–8, 839 Scott, R.W 614 Scott, W 695 self-censorship 268 mindguards 268 unanimity 268 self-interested behaviour 254, 839 self-managed team 241, 839 Selye, H 400 Sengupta, J 679 service 307, 600–1 Shackleton, V 153 shadow organization 219, 839 shadow themes 746, 747, 839 Shaiken, H 600 Shalley, C 449 shamrock organization 645–6 Shamsie, J 637 shape 839 Shaw, M.E 210, 250, 263 Sheldon, O 617 Sherif, M 254 Shireman, B 300 Simon, H.A 358, 687 Sims, D 553 Singh, J.A 472 Sisson, K 25 situation approach 355–6 Skinner, B.F 172–6 Slack, N 808 SMART objectives 449, 839 Smith, A 527, 573 Smith, D.K 211, 214 Smith, K.A 389 Snell, R 484 social capital 553, 839 control 735 engineering 158–9, 839 facilitation/audience effect 223, 839 loafing 223–4, 839 responsibility 479–81, 839 theory 452–3 social science research 9–13 socialization (social doping) 81, 257–8, 839 sociogram 252, 839 sociological approach to management 62–4 Somerlad, E 457 span of control 652, 839 Sparks, K 419 spectator knowledge 282, 839 Spencer, C 282 Spender, J.C 543 Stace, D 801, 812–13 Stacey, R 61, 219, 241, 746 stakeholder 17, 839 groups 23–4 Stalker, G.M 575, 621 Stanley, 16, 336 Starkey, K 580 Steel, R.P 242 Stein, B.A 814 Stephenson, T 802 stereotyping 96–7, 839 Stern, E 457 Stern, S 318 Sternberg, R.J 150 Stevens, J 457 Stewart, P 112, 461, 580, 682 Stewart, R 303, 341, 795 Stewart, S 481 Stiles, P 396 Stock, J 463 Stoner, J.A.F 264 Strachey, J 136, 268 strategy 624–5 stress 157–8, 839 applied perspective 416–20 contextual 401 dealing with 410–16 definition 400–4 determinants experience 406 personality 406 profile 406 support 406 effects 406–10 individual consequences 407–8 behavioural 407 medical 407 psychological 407 individual strategies 411 behaviour control 411 biofeedback 412–13 counselling 411 exercise 413 networking 414 relaxation/meditation 411 role management 412 time management 411 insidious 401 organizational consequences 409 attitude 410 performance 410 withdrawal 410 organizational strategies 414 awareness programmes 414 conflict management 415–16 culture design 416 employee assistance programmes 415 health programmes 415 involvement/communicati on 414 job design 414 organizational design 415 personal development 415 planning 416 procedural frameworks 415 peripheral 402 personal 401 sources 404 competitive 404 environmental 404 Index job 405 organizational 404–5 personal 405–6 Strube, M.J 359 structuration theory 619–20 styles of leadership 350, 839 sub-cultures 499–500, 839 subgroups 252, 839 success 367–72 Summers, D 459 survivor syndrome 405, 839 Susskind, A.M 81 Sviokla, J.J 597 sweat the resource 284, 839 Symons, J 346 systematic soldiering 839 systems approaches to management 60–2, 839 systems theory 623–4, 815–16 Tannenbaum, R 352–3 Tannenbaum and Schmidt continuum 352–3 Tawney, R.H 48 Taylor, F.W 56, 298, 300, 429, 541 Taylorism 541–2 team 210–11, 839 behaviour 252–4 controlling 254–60 communications 250–2 composition 279 corporate influences 279 decision making 260–1 individuals with no role 279 job design/technology 239–40 leaders 337, 839 management profile questionnaire 279–81, 839 management wheel 271–3, 839 mental ability 278 morale 278 and organizations 281–4 personality 278 role reversal 279 roles 235, 278–9, 840 self-managed 241 significance 216–18 unknown factors 279 see also group Team Management Profile Questionnaire 279–81 team working 127 Japanization method 579 strengths communicating 127 decision making 127 involving others 127 using influence 127 styles directors 127 relaters 127 socializers 127 thinkers 127 technology 239–40, 308, 536, 735, 840 administrative 536 alienation 584–5 isolation 584 meaninglessness 584 powerlessness 584 self-estrangement 584 applications 597 administrative 601–2 apparatus 568 manufacturing 597–600 organization 568 service 600–1 technique 568 applied perspective 602–6 co-operation 606 confidence 606 control of agenda 603 control of cost 603 control of location 604 control of organization 604 control of people 602–3 control of process 602 control of resistance 603–4 control of skill 604 control of work 602 pressure 606 sharing 606 visibility 606 assumptions de-skilling 582 efficiency 582–3 impact 582 modernism 582 neutrality 581–2 structure 582 change impact 592 careers 592 economic activity 592–3 employment 592 fashion 593 internationalism 593 limitations 593–4 [ 875 ] products/services 592 risk 593 transition 593 control 586 access 587 adoption 587 application 587 development 587 intention 587 definition 568–70 determinism/rationality 585–6 effects employment 601 health and safety 602 job quality 601–2 social relations 602 engineering approach 569 equipment 536 evolution 570–1 age of rationalism 573 ancient history 571–2 baroque period 573 Middle Ages 572 period of industrialization 573–4 Renaissance 572 impact cost 599 employee 600 government policy 599–600 job design 588–9 managerialism 589, 600 reliability 599 social factors 600 structure 587–8 take-up 599 innovation/diversity 590 incremental 591 radical 590 system 591 IT 596–7 Japanization 578–81 material/social 568–9 new activity 537–8 perspectives Aston studies 576 continuum from routine to non-routine 575 industrialization 576–8 production 574 resource/technology matching 575–6 stability and change 574–5 [ 876 ] Index politics of 583–4 primary/secondary 569 social 536 social approach 570 and work organization 536–8 Tepper, B.J 362 Theory X and Theory Y 310, 450 Theory Z 450–2, 495 Thomas, K 768 Thomas, P.J 315 Thompson, J.D 575 Thompson, J.L 343 Thompson, L 553, 588, 589, 720, 753, 761 Thompson, P 15, 53, 64–5, 281, 403, 496, 515, 659, 761 Thompson, R 260 Thompson, T.E 685 Thorndike, E.L 171 Thorsrud, E 539 Thurow, L 70 Thurstone, L.L 149 Tiggermann, M 317 Ting-Toomey, S 766 Toffler, A 628 Torrington, D 339, 528, 694 total quality management (TQM) 283, 394, 798, 808–9, 840 Townley, B 62, 323, 433, 450, 618, 720 Townsend, R 656 traction 428, 429, 840 training 50, 166, 167, 192–5, 390, 548, 758, 766 trait view of leadership 349–50, 840 transactional/transformational model of leadership 362, 840 Trice and Beyer’s organizational culture 498–9 Trice, H.M 498–9 triple I organization 646, 840 Triplett, N 223 Trist, E.L 61, 538 Trompenaars’ cultural perspectives 505–6 Trompenaars, F 452, 505–6, 509 Troup, C 411 Tsoukas, H 67 Tuckman, B 233, 256 Tuden, A 685 Tung, A.W 781 Turnbull, P 738, 755 Turnbull, P.J 580 Turner, M 415 Tushman, M 804 Tyler, C 284 Type A and Type B personality profile 418–19, 840 Ulrich, D 507 uncertainty avoidance 452, 504, 840 Ure, A 573 Urwick, L 617 Ury, W 697, 769 utilitarian approach to ethics 473, 475, 840 Vaidyanathan, R 99 Valery, N 240 van Veldhoven, M de Jong 401 Van Y Peren, N.W 683 Vandekerchkhove, W 322 variety 284, 840 Vas, A 825 Vecchio, R.P 359 vertical dyad model of leadership 361–2, 840 vicious cycle of control 586, 840 Vinnicombe, S 317 virtual organization 70, 642, 644, 840 common infrastructure 644 define objectives 644 marry well 644 offer the best 644 play fair 644 virtual team 285, 840 virtual working 346, 840 visioning/motivator roles 314, 840 Vivarelli, M 822 Vroom, Porter and Lawler expectancy models 443–6 Vroom, V.H 360, 443–5, 554 Vroom, Yetton, Jago model of leadership 360–1 wage-work bargain 738–9, 840 Waldrop, M.M 816 Wall, T.D 534 Wallace, W 10 Walsh, J 116 Walton, R.E 556 Warburton, F.W 131 Warr, P.B 92 Waterman, R.H 495–6, 823 Watson, J.B 56, 65, 171, 339, 513, 618 Watson, T.J 71 Weary, G 102 web of relationships 481, 840 Weber, M 48, 540, 613 Webster, E.C 153 ter Weel, B 270 Weiman, C 313 Weiner, B 101 Weingart, L.R 748 Welch, J 107, 420, 602 Wheatcroft, J 57 Whetten, D.A 627, 747 whistleblowing 489–90 White, R 350 White, W 481 Whitmore, E 89 Whitt, J.A 647 Whittington, R 409 Whyte, W.H 261, 615 Wilkinson, A 40, 261, 510 Wilkinson, B 114, 578, 579 William, A.I 560 Williams, F 224, 400 Willis, P 764 Willmott, H 54, 258, 300 Wilson, F 70, 316 Wilson, J.F 71 Wilson, M 583 Winner, L 568 Winstanley, S 409 Witkin, H.A 151 Wood, L 166 Woodruffe, C 314, 456 Woodward, J 612 Woolliams, P 509 work empowerment 549 flexibility 548–9 organization bureaucracy 540–1 classical management view 542 contingency view 542–3 culture 543–4 groups 538–9 Taylorism 541–2 technology 536–8 patterns of work 549–50 work measurement 527, 840 work organization alienation 553 applied perspective 557–60 productivity 553–4 satisfaction 554, 556 social capital 553 Index work study 527–8, 840 work-life balance 395–7, 488–9, 840 Worrall, L 21 Wren, D 42, 49, 58, 59, 429 Wyatt, S 224 Xiaoli, J 504 Xinyi Xu 730 Yen, H.J 141 Yetton, 360 Young, R 285 Yukl, G 774 Yurtsever, G 478 [ 877 ] Zaccaro, S.J 224 Zavalloni, M 264 zone of indifference 374, 840 Zuboff, S 596 Zwetsloot, G.I.J.M 481 [...]... chapter begins that process by exploring what constitutes organizational behaviour and then introduces the major themes of the rest of the book, namely, management, employees and organizations WHAT IS ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR? Organizational behaviour Approach to the study of management and organizations incorporating anything relevant to the design, management and effectiveness of an organization Hawthorne... range of organizational behaviour, introduction to management or people management modules ■ Practising managers who seek to develop an academic understanding of the topics through which to interpret their experience, perhaps as part of a diploma or degree programme ■ A second category of reader would be those with an academic background in either business or management who, having gained some management. .. the Management in Action panels, Employee Perspective panels and Case Studies throughout the text Chapters 1 and 2 serve as an introduction to the study of management and organizations along with an overview of the evolutionary development of management across history This and the subsequent material provides the following framework: [ xxiii ] [ xxiv ] Preface ■ Introduction to management and organizational. .. website for the new edition of Organizational Behaviour is at http://www thomsonlearning.co.uk/businessandmanagement /martin3 This comprehensive resource provides open access learning materials to students of Organizational Behaviour, including chapter overviews, links to the home pages of companies discussed in the cases, extra essay-style questions and a full list of organizational behaviour definitions... will be pleased to make the necessary arrangement at the earliest opportunity PART ONE Management and organizational behaviour Chapter 1 Organizational behaviour today Chapter 2 Management and organizations – evolution and academic perspectives T he purpose of this section of the book is to introduce the reader to organizational behaviour as an area of academic and practical study of vital importance... applied perspective Conclusions Chapter 15 Organizational structure and design Introduction Perspectives on organizational structure Organizational lifecycle Structural frameworks BPR, flexible and flatter organizations The virtual, federal and networked organization Alternative organizations Factors influencing organizational design Charting organizations Organizational structure and design: an applied... Groups Communication Decision making and Negotiation Job design and technology ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR Management and Leadership Organization structure Culture Ethics Power and control Change processes Stress The world of organizational behaviour Conflict and politics [5] [6] Organizational behaviour today Part 1 WHY STUDY ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR? People within an organization are invariably trained... practice opportunity in dealing with organizational behaviour issues Prelims Preface ■ A number of new Management in Action panels have also been introduced in this edition ■ The specific inclusion of international perspectives to many of the Management in Action panels, Employee Perspective panels and Case Study material ■ In-chapter tasks have been provided for almost all Management in Action and Employee... that contain aspects of organization, management or the people issues associated with running public or private sector businesses These can include undergraduate degree programmes in management and business studies or those degrees with management as a minor component, as well as postgraduate degrees and other post-experience qualifications such as the Diploma of Management Studies, MA and MBA programmes... influence and authority Perspectives on power Sources of organizational power Power and decision making Control within organizations Form and characteristics of control Power, control and resistance Power and control: an applied perspective Conclusions Chapter 18 Conflict and organizational politics Introduction Sources of organizational conflict Forms of organizational conflict The consequences of conflict
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