Financial accounting in an economic context 8e chapter 011

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1 Chapter 11 Long-Term Liabilities Notes, Bonds, and Leases Long-Term Liabilities Economic Consequences of Reporting Long-Term Liabilities Improved credit ratings can lead to lower borrowing costs Management has strong incentive to manage the balance sheet by using “off-balance-sheet financing” Basic Definitions and Different Contractual Forms Some contracts, called interest-bearing obligations, require periodic (annual or semiannual) cash payments (called interest) that are determined as a percentage of the face, principal, or maturity value, which must be paid at the end of the contract period Non-interest-bearing obligations, on the other hand, require no periodic payments, but only a single cash payment at the end of the contract period These contractual forms may contain additional terms that specify assets pledged as security or collateral in case the required cash payments are not met (default), as well as additional provisions (restrictive covenants) Figure 11-2 Accounting for Long-Term Notes Payable Long-Term Liabilities Notes, Bonds, and Leases  Long-term liabilities are recorded at the present value of the future cash flows  Two components determine the “time value” of money: – interest (discount) rate – number of periods of discounting  Types of activities that require PV calculations: – notes payable – bonds payable and bond investments – capital leases Present Value of a Single Sum All present value calculations presume a discount rate (i) and a number of periods of discounting (n) There are different ways you can calculate the PV1: n Formula: PV1 = FV1 [1/(1+i) ] Tables: See Page 718, Table Financial Calculator (time value of money) Long-term Notes Payable  Problem 1: On January 2, 2008, Pearson Company purchases a section of land for its new plant site Pearson issues a year non-interest bearing note, and promises to pay $50,000 at the end of the year period What is the cash equivalent price of the land, if a percent discount rate is assumed? PV1 = 50,000 x ( 0.74726) = $37,363 [ i=6%, n=5] Journal entry Jan 2, 2008: Dr Land 37,363 Dr Discount on N/P 12,637 Cr Notes Payable 50,000 10 Problem - Journal Entries JE at 7/1/07 to issue the bonds: Cash 104,265 Premium on B/P 4,265 Bonds Payable 100,000 JE at 12/31/07 to pay interest: Interest Expense Premium on B/P Cash 3,128 372 3,500 Note that the numbers for each interest payment come from the lines on the amortization schedule 22 Cash Flows for Bonds Payable 23 Bonds Issued at Face Value 24      Bonds Payable at a Discount If bonds are issued at a discount, the carrying value will be below face value at the date of issue The Discount on B/P account has a normal debit balance and is a contra to B/P (similar to the Discount on N/P) The Discount account is amortized with a credit Note that the difference between Cash Paid and Interest Expense is still the amount of amortization Interest expense for bonds issued at a discount will be greater than cash paid The amortization table will show the bonds amortized up to face value 25 Bonds Issued at a Discount 26 Bond Amortization Table 27 Bond Redemptions When bonds are redeemed at the maturity date, the issuing company simply pays cash to the bondholders in the amount of the face value and removes the bond payable from the balance sheet To illustrate the redemption of a bond issuance prior to maturity at a loss, assume that bonds with a $100,000 face value and a $5,000 unamortized discount are redeemed for $102,000 The $7,000 loss on redemption would decrease net income 28 Capital Lease 29 Capital Lease Criteria 30 Leases  FASB issued SFAS No 13, which requires certain leases to be recorded as capital leases – Capital leases record the leased asset as a capital  asset, and reflect the present value of the related payment contract as a liability Requirements of SFAS No 13 - record as capital lease for the lessee if any one of the following is present in the lease: – Title transfers at the end of the lease period, – The lease contains a bargain purchase option, – The lease life is at least 75% of the useful life of the asset, or – The lessee pays for at least 90% of the fair market value of the lease 31 International Perspective  The accounting disclosure requirements in non-U.S countries and IFRS are not as comprehensive as those in the United States, partially because the information needs of the major capital providers (i.e., banks) are satisfied in a relatively straightforward way—through personal contact and direct visits  A second way in which the heavy reliance on debt affects non-U.S accounting systems is that the required disclosures and regulations tend to be designed either to protect the creditor or to help in the assessment of solvency 32 Appendix 11A Determine the Effective (Actual) Rate of Return  Determine the Required Rate of Return  Determine the Risk-Free Return  Determine the Risk Premium  Compare the Effective Rate to the Required Rate  33 Appendix 11B 34 Appendix 11C – Interest Rate Swaps A common method used by companies to reduce such risks is called hedging, where a company enters into a contract that creates risks that counteract or balance the risks attempted to be hedged (reduced) The most common method of hedging market interest rate risk is called an interest rate swap 35 Copyright Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc All rights reserved Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted in Section 117 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the express written permission of the copyright owner is unlawful Request for further information should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc The purchaser may make back-up copies for his/her own use only and not for distribution or resale The Publisher assumes no responsibility for errors, omissions, or damages, caused by the use of these programs or from the use of the information contained herein 36 [...]... 31 International Perspective  The accounting disclosure requirements in non-U.S countries and IFRS are not as comprehensive as those in the United States, partially because the information needs of the major capital providers (i.e., banks) are satisfied in a relatively straightforward way—through personal contact and direct visits  A second way in which the heavy reliance on debt affects non-U.S accounting. .. 34 Appendix 11C – Interest Rate Swaps A common method used by companies to reduce such risks is called hedging, where a company enters into a contract that creates risks that counteract or balance the risks attempted to be hedged (reduced) The most common method of hedging market interest rate risk is called an interest rate swap 35 Copyright Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc All rights reserved... Problem 2 - calculations PV of interest annuity: PVOA Table PVOA = 3,500 (8.53020) = $29,856 i = 3%, n = 10 PV of face value: PV1 Table PV = 100,000 (0.74409)=$74,409 i=3%, n=10 Total issue price = $104,265 Issued at a premium of $4,265 because the company was offering an interest rate greater than the market rate, and investors were willing to pay more for the higher interest rate 19 Problem 2 - Amortization... Prices 16 2 Present Value of an Ordinary Annuity(PVOA) PVOA calculations presume a discount rate (i), where (A) = the amount of each annuity, and (n) = the number of annuities (or rents), which is the same as the number of periods of discounting There are 3 different ways you can calculate PVOA: 1 Formula: PVOA = A [1-(1/(1+i)n)] / i 2 Tables: see page 719, Table 5 3 Financial Calculator (time value... Payable   On July 1, 2007, Mustang Corporation issues $100,000 of its 5-year bonds which have an annual stated rate of 7%, and pay interest semiannually each June 30 and December 31, starting December 31, 2007 The bonds were issued to yield 6% annually Calculate the issue price of the bond: (1) What are the cash flows and factors? Face value at maturity = $100,000 Stated Interest = Face value x stated... continued The Effective Interest Method: Interest Expense = Carrying value x Interest rate x Time period (CV) (Per year) (Portion of year) Where carrying value = face - discount For Example 1, CV= 50,000 - 12,637 = 37,363 Interest expense = 37,363 x 6% per year x 1year = $2,242 11 Problem 1 Solution, continued Journal entry, December 31, 2008: Interest expense 2,242 Discount on N/P 2,242 Carrying value... Cash Paid and Interest Expense is still the amount of amortization Interest expense for bonds issued at a discount will be greater than cash paid The amortization table will show the bonds amortized up to face value 25 Bonds Issued at a Discount 26 Bond Amortization Table 27 Bond Redemptions When bonds are redeemed at the maturity date, the issuing company simply pays cash to the bondholders in the amount... which the heavy reliance on debt affects non-U.S accounting systems is that the required disclosures and regulations tend to be designed either to protect the creditor or to help in the assessment of solvency 32 Appendix 11A Determine the Effective (Actual) Rate of Return  Determine the Required Rate of Return  Determine the Risk-Free Return  Determine the Risk Premium  Compare the Effective Rate to... – Capital leases record the leased asset as a capital  asset, and reflect the present value of the related payment contract as a liability Requirements of SFAS No 13 - record as capital lease for the lessee if any one of the following is present in the lease: – Title transfers at the end of the lease period, – The lease contains a bargain purchase option, – The lease life is at least 75% of the useful... $10,395) 12 Problem 1 Solution, continued Interest expense at Dec 31, 2009: 39,605 x 6% x 1 = $2,376 Journal entry, December 31, 2009: Interest expense 2,376 Discount on N/P 2,376 Carrying value on B/S at 12/31/2009: Notes Payable $50,000 Discount on N/P (8,019) $41,981 (Discount = 10,395 - 2,376) Carrying value on 12/31/2012 (before retirement)? $50,000 13 Bond Terminology 14 Bonds Payable Example 15
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