INTERNATIONAL CORPORATE GOVERNANCE a ONE DOT THEORY INTERPRETATION

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BUSINESS ECONOMICS IN A RAPIDLY-CHANGING WORLD INTERNATIONAL (CORPORATE) GOVERNANCE: A ONE-DOT THEORY INTERPRETATION No part of this digital document may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means The publisher has taken reasonable care in the preparation of this digital document, but makes no expressed or implied warranty of any kind and assumes no responsibility for any errors or omissions No liability is assumed for incidental or consequential damages in connection with or arising out of information contained herein This digital document is sold with the clear understanding that the publisher is not engaged in rendering legal, medical or any other professional services BUSINESS ECONOMICS IN A RAPIDLY-CHANGING WORLD Additional books in this series can be found on Nova‘s website under the Series tab Additional E-books in this series can be found on Nova‘s website under the E-books tab BUSINESS ISSUES, COMPETITION AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP Additional books in this series can be found on Nova‘s website under the Series tab Additional E-books in this series can be found on Nova‘s website under the E-books tab BUSINESS ECONOMICS IN A RAPIDLY-CHANGING WORLD INTERNATIONAL (CORPORATE) GOVERNANCE: A ONE-DOT THEORY INTERPRETATION PETER KIEN-HONG YU EDITOR Nova Business and Management Publications, Inc New York Copyright © 2011 by Nova Business and Management Publications All rights reserved No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means: electronic, electrostatic, magnetic, tape, mechanical photocopying, recording or otherwise without the written permission of the Publisher For permission to use material from this book please contact us: Telephone 631-231-7269; Fax 631-231-8175 Web Site: http://www.novapublishers.com NOTICE TO THE READER The Publisher has taken reasonable care in the preparation of this book, but makes no expressed or implied warranty of any kind and assumes no responsibility for any errors or omissions No liability is assumed for incidental or consequential damages in connection with or arising out of information contained in this book The Publisher shall not be liable for any special, consequential, or exemplary damages resulting, in whole or in part, from the readers‘ use of, or reliance upon, this material Any parts of this book based on government reports are so indicated and copyright is claimed for those parts to the extent applicable to compilations of such works Independent verification should be sought for any data, advice or recommendations contained in this book In addition, no responsibility is assumed by the publisher for any injury and/or damage to persons or property arising from any methods, products, instructions, ideas or otherwise contained in this publication This publication is designed to provide accurate and authoritative information with regard to the subject matter covered herein It is sold with the clear understanding that the Publisher is not engaged in rendering legal or any other professional services If legal or any other expert assistance is required, the services of a competent person should be sought FROM A DECLARATION OF PARTICIPANTS JOINTLY ADOPTED BY A COMMITTEE OF THE AMERICAN BAR ASSOCIATION AND A COMMITTEE OF PUBLISHERS Additional color graphics may be available in the e-book version of this book LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOGING-IN-PUBLICATION DATA International (corporate) governance : a one-dot theory interpretation / editor, Peter Kien-hong Yu p cm Includes bibliographical references and index ISBN 978-1-61209-001-6 (eBook) Corporate governance Industrial management I Yu, Peter Kien-hong, 1953HD2741I5883 2010 338.6 dc22 2010041369 Published by Nova Business and Management Publications, Inc † New York DEDICATION To my father, who went to Taiwan Province from Guangdong Province in August 1949 working on board the last ship of China Merchants Steam Navigation Company (CMSNC) (the May 1949 ship transported gold from Shanghai Port to Jilong Port) and who had been permanently settled down in the United States since December 1972 CONTENTS Preface ix Peter Kien-Hong Yu Chapter One-dot Theory and the Crab and Frog Motion Model Peter Kien-Hong Yu and Chunli Zhang Chapter Management Diagrams: Consistently Converting Them in Terms of a Series of Yin and Yang Diagrams Peter Kien-Hong Yu, Chui Ching Ling, and Bibiana Chiu Yiong Lim Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Redefining Global Business as International Regimes-related Trade and Commerce: Navigating through an Ocean without Confusion by Applying the One-dot Theory Peter Kien-Hong Yu and George Kwang Sing Ngui 17 37 Three Theories Related to the World Trade Organization (WTO): A One-dot Theory Conceptualization Peter Kien-hong Yu 49 International Regimes and Non-regimes in Confucian (Corporate) Governance: A Critique of Blue Ocean Strategy‘s Metaphor and Methodology Peter Kien-hong Yu, Kiat Sing Heng, Lisa Hua Ngui Lee, and Mung Ling Voon 75 Marketing X as a University of Governance: A One-dot Theory and Modified SWOT Model Application Peter Kien-hong Yu and Shawn S F Kao 91 Can we Apply the International (Corporate) Governance Theory to Study the Coca-Cola Company? Peter Kien-hong Yu 103 Near-bankruptcy of the Taiwan High Speed Rail Corporation: What Went Wrong? Peter Kien-hong Yu and Jokull Johannesson 119 viii Chapter Contents Business Success and Failure: Malaysian Bumiputras and NonBumiputras Peter Kien-hong Yu, Jawed A Mohammed and Jokull Johannesson 133 Chapter 10 Governing Malaysia as One Dot? Peter K H Yu 153 Chapter 11 Sugar Shortage: Analyzing Sarawak, Malaysia's Governance Peter Kien-hong Yu, Asleena Helmi, and Vie Ming Tan 177 Chapter 12 The Study of Politics and Non-Politics Should Begin with One Dot Peter Kien-hong Yu and W Emily Chow 191 About the Contributors 207 Index 211 About the Contributors 209 Dr Mohammed has held variety of responsible positions ranging from management to international operations His entrepreneurial venture in foreign trade adds to his expertise in international business He has travelled widely and gained valuable cross-cultural experiences as well as established network of international contacts with senior management of business corporations, government officials and scholars in different parts of the world He has also been engaged in an advisory role with the United Nations (UNIDO) and an non-governmental organization (NGO) in Turkey Dr Mohammed has been a regular speaker in corporate, parliamentarians, and defence personnel seminars, business meetings of Rotary and Lions Clubs, several social and church groups in New Zealand and Australia on contemporary Islam and various international affairs and relations issues He has also provided consultation to several businesses Dr Mohammed is committed to research with a clear understanding and comprehensive knowledge in the area of international business and Islamic studies He is currently embarked on a research project studying business practices in Islamic countries and its implications on global strategies George K S Ngui, senior lecturer, teaches marketing and organizational behavior courses at Swinburne University of Technology, Sarawak Campus He received his M.Sc from the University of Leicester and his Ph.D from Universiti Malaysia Sarawak He has written numerous articles for journals and conferences, and has undertaken consulting projects for clients such as the Malaysian Furniture Promotion Council and the Ministry of Industrial Development His current research focuses on industry competitiveness and strategic capabilities of small businesses Lisa Hua Ngui Lee obtained her Master of Arts in Management from University of Science Malaysia, Penang in 2001 Currently she is a lecturer at School of Business and Design at Swinburne University of Technology (Sarawak Campus), Sarawak, Malaysia Vie Ming Tan posses a Master degree in Business Administration from the University of Heriot-Watt, United Kingdom His first degree is Bachelor of Commerce majoring in Finance from the University of Otago, New Zealand He has recently joined Swinburne University of Technology, Sarawak campus, Malaysia, as Lecturer in the School of Business and Design He teaches Business Mathematics, Quantitative Analysis and Services Marketing for undergraduate programmes Prior to joining Swinburne University in February 2006, he taught Business Mathematics, Statistics, Finance, Research Methodology and Operations Management at both the diploma and degree levels for years while working as a lecturer at Chermai Jaya College, Kuching Apart from lecturing, he also served as a Programme Head of Business Administration Programmes with Chermai Jaya College, Kuching His research and teaching interests include service quality and time series analysis in services industry as well as innovative teaching techniques to enhance students‘ interest in quantitative subjects Mung-Ling Voon is a lecturer at the School of Business and Design, Swinburne University of Technology, Sarawak Campus She graduated with Honours in Economics and International Business from Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS) and holds a Master of Science from University of Leicester, UK in 2003 She has taught the courses of Economics, Human Resource Management and Management Besides teaching, she has published several articles in journals and conference proceedings 210 About the Contributors Peter Kien-Hong Yu (Ph.D., New York University, October 1983) is Professor at Swinburne University of Technology (Australia) since June 2009 and Director of the One-dot Center for the Study of International Governance, Regimes, and Globalization at Ming Chuan University (MCU), Taiwan, Republic of China (ROC), since April 2007 From October 1983 to July 2009, he worked in various capacities, such as the Dean of Research and Development at an institution of higher education, Director of the Graduate School of International Affairs at MCU, professor at the National Sun Yat-sen University, senior research fellow at the National University of Singapore, etc He is the author, co-author, editor, and co-editor of 15 books in both English and Chinese and some 90 journal articles and book chapters published in the West He is the recipient of many fellowships, awards, and grants His latest books are The Second Long March (2009), which is published by The Continuum (U.S.), and International Governance, Regimes, and Globalization: Case Studies from Beijing and Taipei (2010), which is published by Lexington Books (U.S.) His forthcoming books are: International Governance and Regimes: A Chinese Perspective and The Politics and Business Dimensions of Governance and Regimes: A One-dot Theory Interpretation INDEX 11-dimensional theory, 21st century, 3, 51, 58, 73, 127, 195 A Abraham, 26, 173 access, 18, 46, 60, 61, 136, 144, 157 accountability, 108, 109 accounting, 66, 208 acid, 47 adjustment, 54 administrators, 98 affirmative action, 112 affirming, 111 Africa, 46, 72, 99, 106 age, 8, 9, 31, 109, 156, 175 agencies, 104, 120, 123, 124, 128, 149, 150, 158, 163, 186 agriculture, 51, 54, 55, 63, 109, 146, 150, 187 AIDS, 116 Air Force, 72 alters, 202 anemia, 112 appointments, 163 Arab world, 144 architect, 144 armed conflict, 111 armed forces, 106, 148, 165 arms control, 87, 103, 111 ASEAN, 4, 135, 136, 143, 208 Asia, xi, 20, 35, 38, 42, 46, 77, 83, 92, 95, 96, 99, 106, 117, 128, 149, 152, 180, 202, 205, 207, 208 Asian countries, 10, 206 assertiveness, 29 assessment, 27, 61, 66 Association of Southeast Asian Nations, 4, 135 authorities, 49, 51, 52, 69, 114, 163, 170, 172, 182, 187 authority, 23 aviation industry, 129 avoidance, 52, 86 awareness, 108, 111, 113 B backwardness, 146 ban, 169, 170, 173, 203 bankers, 127, 128 banking, 63, 129 bankruptcy, vii, 107, 119, 127, 129, 130 bargaining, 67, 188 barriers, 51, 58, 61, 63, 69 base, 55, 72, 98, 136, 137, 139, 145, 159, 167, 175 beef, 59, 128, 138, 178 behaviors, 116 Beijing, 9, 10, 44, 52, 64, 68, 86, 108, 110, 117, 192, 206, 210 beneficiaries, 46 benefits, 44, 109, 123, 151 beverages, 92, 106, 107, 108, 112 Bible, 170, 171 Big Bang, 33 blame, 129, 130, 181 blindness, 184 BOT, 119, 120, 121, 122, 123, 124, 125, 127, 128, 129, 131 brain, 160 brain drain, 160 Brazil, 178, 189 breakdown, 65 Britain, 43 212 Index browsing, 103 Buddhism, 158 Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT) Railway Project, 119 Bumi, 133, 134, 135, 136, 137, 138, 139, 140, 141, 142, 143, 144, 145, 146, 147, 148, 149, 150, 151 Bumiputras, viii, 133, 134, 154, 156, 157, 164, 165, 174 business education, 92 business environment, 3, 83 business model, 83, 85 business strategy, 93, 207 businesses, 40, 41, 46, 47, 86, 89, 110, 130, 139, 140, 144, 147, 185, 209 buyers, 33, 93, 128 C Cabinet, 146 caffeine, 112 calorie, 103, 106 cancer, 184, 201 capital markets, 55 capitalism, 105 carbohydrates, 184 carbon, 87, 91, 92, 99, 100, 101, 107, 110, 111, 114 carbon dioxide, 99, 107 Caribbean, 46, 56, 66, 69 cartel, 65 cartoon, xi, 29 case study, 92, 121, 129, 130, 133, 166 cash, 99, 120, 150 catalyst, 58, 143 catfish, 140 Catholic Church, 173 Catholics, 5, 169, 170, 173, 174 CEC, 123 censorship, 164 central planning, x certificate, 140 certification, 126, 140 challenges, xii, 53, 57, 79 Chamber of Commerce, 141, 149, 152, 188 chaos, 4, 45, 78, 80, 82 charm, 192 chemical, 11, 28, 107, 201 chemicals, 52 Chicago, 89, 199, 207 chicken, 40, 138, 140, 149, 178 childhood, 161 children, 8, 9, 11, 71, 73, 112, 161, 166 Chinese People‘s Liberation Army, 34 Chinese women, 174 Christianity, 158 Christians, 5, 169, 170, 171, 172, 174 circus, 44, 82, 84, 88 cities, 108, 116, 128 citizens, 96, 146, 175 citizenship, 98, 113 City, 31, 101, 106, 121, 123, 127, 129, 136, 141, 144, 145, 158, 167, 171, 192 civil servants, 144, 162, 164, 188, 189 civil service, 157, 163 civil society, 79, 100, 105 classification, 55, 179 classroom, 199 clean energy, 99 cleaning, 109, 141 clients, 209 climate, 47, 89, 99, 111, 115, 181 climate change, 89, 99, 111 clone, 203 cloning, 8, 203 clothing, 46, 53, 55, 63 CO2, 99, 107 coal, 114 Coca-Cola Company, vii, 48, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 112, 114, 115, 116 Coca-Cola System, 107 cocoa, 145 coffee, 146, 171, 180, 185, 188 coherence, 30, 57 coke, 103, 106, 108, 109, 115, 116 Cold War, 52, 72, 98 collective bargaining, 188 colleges, 48, 97 Colombia, 111 commerce, 43, 44, 45, 46, 48, 63, 73, 87, 88, 103, 111, 115, 207, 208 commercial, 16, 42, 59, 121, 122, 125, 126, 145, 165, 192, 198 commodity, 56, 145, 179, 180, 181, 183, 184, 185 communication, 23, 153, 164, 207 Communist Party, 202 communities, 18, 49, 51, 113, 136, 138, 142, 148, 164 community, 41, 46, 52, 65, 86, 89, 92, 108, 110, 128, 129, 134, 135, 141, 145, 146, 147, 148, 151, 157, 158, 160, 162, 163, 170, 171, 173, 174, 185 comparative advantage, 44, 58 compassion, 182 compensation, 124, 125 competition, 4, 37, 38, 44, 45, 47, 52, 54, 58, 61, 64, 76, 81, 82, 83, 86, 93, 97, 111, 166, 203 competitive advantage, 44 competitiveness, 135, 136, 146, 209 compliance, 27, 47, 61, 66, 98, 109 composition, 157 213 Index compression, 191 computer, 192, 194, 203 conference, xi, xii, 44, 57, 69, 115, 167, 207, 209 conflict, 29, 52, 80, 111, 203 Confucianism, 75, 76, 79, 89, 158 Confucius, 4, 6, 79, 80, 81, 192, 195 CONGRESS, iv, 16, 149, 154, 162, 188 connectivity, 85 consensus, 9, 10, 67, 98, 108, 130, 172 consent, 170, 184 Constitution, 155, 159 construction, 120, 121, 122, 124, 125, 126, 130, 146 consulting, 194, 209 consumer advocates, 123 consumers, 33, 46, 62, 63, 67, 104, 105, 110, 112, 113, 116, 123, 128, 130, 142, 177, 181, 182, 183, 184, 185, 187, 188, 200, 202 consumption, 143, 177, 178, 184 containers, 112, 113 content analysis, 134 contingency, 27, 54, 56, 64 contour, 106 contradiction, 7, 8, 11, 12, 19, 39, 85, 94, 194, 203 controversial, 172, 192 convergence, 49 cooking, 179, 183, 184, 187 cooling, 109 cooperation, 51, 52, 65, 86, 92, 100, 147, 164, 169, 178 coordination, 40, 52, 86, 100 Copyright, ivcorporate governance, xi, 32, 41, 82, 91, 92, 100, 103, 104, 105, 106, 115, 207 corporate governance theories, 104 corporate sector, 147 corruption, 109, 111, 145, 162, 163, 188 cosmos, 4, 45, 78, 82 cost, 46, 47, 54, 68, 88, 89, 115, 124, 127, 129, 139, 140, 157, 163, 180, 182, 183, 187, 188 cost-benefit analysis, 128 covering, 51, 108 CPC, 202 crab and frog motion model, ix, xii, 2, 6, 7, 8, 11, 12, 13, 16, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 34, 37, 38, 39, 43, 45, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 82, 84, 85, 86, 88, 93, 94, 95, 153, 165, 167, 168, 195, 198, 201 crabs, 7, 19, 40, 94, 163 cracks, 161 crawling peg, 41 criticism, 16, 32, 89 cronyism, 162 crop, 46, 178, 181 crops, 189 cruise missiles, 72 crust, 190 cultivation, 79, 80 cultural affiliation, 157 cultural tradition, 89 culture, 24, 98, 155, 159, 161, 192, 205 currency, 41, 111, 139, 189, 196 curriculum, 92 curriculum development, 92 customers, 77, 83, 87, 104, 110, 136, 137, 138, 145, 146, 180, 181, 183, 185 CVD, 54 D danger, 7, 9, 13, 19, 21, 22, 29, 39, 41, 45, 47, 78, 94, 168, 193, 195, 202 Darfur, 10 Darfur region, 10 database, 53, 54, 62, 64, 65, 66 deaths, 26 debts, 119, 123 decision makers, 44 decision-making process, 62 deconstruction, 13 deduction, ix, 13, 83, 201 deductive reasoning, 12, 13, 84 defence, 209 deficiency, 112, 116 deficit, 189 delegates, 64 democracy, 52, 59, 71, 164 Democratic Party, 142, 154, 161 democratization, 207 demographic factors, 175 Denmark, 64 Department of Agriculture, 115 deprivation, 173 depth, 1, 23, 93, 104, 160 developed countries, 61, 65, 69, 96 developing countries, 61, 65, 68, 99 developing nations, 46 diabetes, 180, 183 dialogues, 78, 136 dichotomy, 86 diet, 110 dignity, 192 diplomacy, 101, 113 direct investment, 42, 58 directors, 104, 124, 126 disclosure, 41 discrimination, 51, 58, 61, 112, 134, 140 diseases, 177, 184 distortions, 55, 58 214 Index distribution, 69, 98, 160, 162, 177, 182, 185 divergence, 81 diversity, 155, 157 domestic industry, 53 Dot, i, iii, viii, xii, 2, 3, 7, 13, 16, 20, 50, 72, 153, 191, 197, 199, 204 drawing, 4, 11, 83, 85 drinking water, 107 drought, 181 duality, 199 dumping, 51, 54, 55, 58, 62, 64, 66, 68 duty-free treatment, 56 E early warning, 128 earnings, 54, 70 East Asia, 72, 205, 208 e-commerce, 207 economic assistance, 145 economic development, 143 economic growth, 121, 126, 129 economic policy, 135 economic reform, 61 economic relations, 91 economics, 50, 53, 58, 101, 166 Ecuador, 46 editors, 40, 195 education, 91, 92, 95, 97, 101, 144, 208, 210 election, 134, 137, 154, 163, 171, 174, 190 electricity, 141, 179 electron, 60, 62 elementary school, 108, 112 employees, 26, 27, 50, 80, 81, 87, 110, 112, 124, 162 employment, 46, 112, 144 end-users, 181 enemies, 125 energy, xi, 57, 80, 99, 105, 112, 114, 126 energy efficiency, 114 enforcement, 56, 71, 141, 163, 182, 185, 186 engineering, 126, 128 England, entrepreneurs, 119, 129, 136, 141, 142, 143, 144, 145, 147, 149, 151, 161 environment, 3, 20, 52, 57, 62, 73, 79, 83, 88, 96, 111, 112, 114, 126, 127 environmental standards, 69 environmental sustainability, 207 EPA, 99, 100 epistemology, equality, 56 equilibrium, 14 equipment, 121, 125, 150 equity, 107, 108, 127, 142, 151, 156 ethics, 45, 89, 98, 150 ethnic groups, 133, 143, 144, 146, 151, 154 ethnicity, 135, 145, 168 EU, 46, 52, 55, 56, 58, 66, 69, 70 Europe, 46, 60, 69 European Community, 56, 192 European Union, 46, 52 evidence, 43, 58, 60, 160, 165, 167, 177, 181 exchange rate, 41, 54, 87, 111, 124, 192 exchange rate mechanism, 54 execution, 169 exercise, 30, 192, 200 expertise, 61, 166, 209 exploitation, 184 export control, 58 export subsidies, 58, 68 exporters, 54, 64, 136, 137 exports, 46, 54, 182 F facilitators, 159 family members, 145 farmers, 55, 70, 137, 143, 187 farms, 109 FDI, 42 fear, 79, 113, 140, 145, 183, 184 federal government, 97, 129, 134, 153, 165 Federal Government, 16, 134, 138, 151, 157, 159, 179, 180, 181, 183, 184, 185, 186, 187, 188, 189 feelings, 164 financial, 47, 70, 111, 116, 120, 124, 125, 127, 130, 137, 141, 147, 150, 166 financial crisis, 70, 166 financial markets, 120 fish, 47, 147, 156 fitness, 109 Five Elements, 3, 5, 75, 76, 77, 88, 89, 206 flaws, 162 flexibility, 61, 79, 169, 205 flight, 72, 73, 128, 158 flour, 179, 184, 187 fluctuations, 111, 184 food, 63, 69, 83, 111, 137, 138, 142, 144, 145, 149, 171, 174, 179, 180 food products, 145 force, 44, 50, 51, 54, 55, 159, 164, 186, 203 foreign aid, 87, 111 foreign companies, 60 foreign direct investment, 42, 58 foreign exchange, 82, 87, 103, 105, 111, 116, 127, 130, 196 foreign investment, 87, 111 foreign nationals, 137, 165 215 Index formation, 40, 153, 159 formula, 107, 109, 114, 115, 119, 153, 155, 156 France, 43 franchise, 147 fraud, 123 free trade, 58, 60, 61, 89 freedom, 160 friction, 11, 80, 161 funding, 97, 120, 124, 128, 133 funds, 111, 123, 129, 147 G gambling, 125 game theory, 6, 14, 16, 33, 86, 101, 191, 199, 203, 204, 205 garbage, 141 GATS, 65, 68 GATT, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 70, 72 GDP, 162, 166, 179 General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, 53, 56 General Agreement on Trade in Services, 65, 68 general election, 124, 154, 190 Georgia, 101, 106, 109, 111, 116 Germany, 38 global economy, 42 global trade, 53 global village, 73 global warming, 80, 99, 112 globalization, 16, 40, 50, 73, 166, 175, 198, 203, 205, 207 GNP, 139 God, 1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 33, 50, 72, 79, 168, 169, 170, 171, 173, 174, 197, 198, 205 goods and services, 75, 87, 88, 89 google, 108 governance, iv, xi, xii, 32, 33, 37, 38, 40, 41, 42, 43, 45, 46, 59, 67, 72, 75, 76, 79, 80, 82, 86, 89, 91, 92, 98, 100, 101, 103, 104, 105, 106, 108, 110, 111, 113, 115, 144, 177, 203, 207 government procurement, 60 government-linked companies, 162 governments, 42, 57, 58, 60, 63, 67, 69, 71, 100, 120, 123, 154, 177 grades, 97, 98 grading, 23 grants, 116, 141, 151, 210 grassroots, 164 Great Britain, 43 Great Depression, 70 greenhouse, 99, 114 greenhouse gases, 99 Gross Domestic Product, 166, 179 growth, 53, 86, 121, 126, 129, 143, 166 growth theory, 86 Guangdong, v, 26, 98, 201 Guatemala, 178 guidance, 126, 173 guidelines, 104, 183, 184 Gulf of Mexico, 72 H harmony, 66, 75, 79, 80, 81, 86, 87, 89, 161, 164, 168, 169, 172 haze, 65 headache, 31 health, 54, 69, 73, 112, 113, 177, 179, 187 health problems, 112 herbal medicine, x hierarchy of needs, 25 higher education, 91, 92, 95, 97, 144, 210 highlands, 186 history, 10, 12, 13, 73, 107, 109, 166, 175, 184, 192 Hong Kong, 10, 139, 201 hormones, 59 host, 10, 63, 96, 145, 150 hot spots, 77 House, 154, 169 House of Representatives, 154 household income, 145 housing, 70, 157, 163 Housing and Urban Development, 171 human, 3, 4, 5, 8, 12, 14, 16, 26, 31, 33, 34, 44, 46, 47, 48, 49, 53, 54, 63, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 79, 80, 87, 103, 108, 111, 112, 113, 115, 116, 130, 141, 156, 170, 173, 184, 191, 198, 200, 203, 204, 205 human activity, 112 human behavior, 14 human body, 184 human remains, 16 Human Resource Management, 24, 208, 209 human resources, 141 human right, 69, 87, 103, 111, 112, 173 human rights, 69, 87, 103, 111, 112, 173 human security, 47, 103, 111 human values, 156 hybrid, ix, 31, 80, 89, 168, 174, 201 hygiene, 145 hypertension, 184 hypocrisy, 89 hypothesis, 195 hypothesis test, 195 I ideal, 155, 205 216 Index idealism, 72 identity, 110, 156 ideology, 15, 167, 204 image, 88, 108, 153, 192 IMF, 70 imitation, 107 immigrants, 174 immigration, 157, 188 Impact Assessment, 120, 131 imported products, 190 imports, 53, 61, 65, 68 improvements, 112 impurities, 178 incidence, 116 income, 44, 127, 136, 137, 140, 141, 143, 144, 145, 163, 166, 177, 179 independence, 10, 165, 169 Independence, 155, 168 India, xi, 43, 44, 92, 107, 108, 127, 135, 148, 158, 177, 189, 208 Indians, 134, 140, 143, 148, 149, 153, 157, 164, 174, 175 individuals, 32, 37, 42, 43, 46, 51, 81, 87, 92, 93, 101, 110, 124, 138, 162, 166 indoctrination, 157, 162 Indonesia, 3, 4, 135, 163, 170, 171, 173, 179, 182, 187, 188 induction, 13, 83, 201 industrialization, 55 industrialized countries, 161 industries, 52, 61, 77, 84, 140, 145, 182 industry, 54, 65, 82, 87, 89, 93, 98, 103, 108, 112, 114, 127, 129, 140, 145, 150, 164, 180, 207, 208, 209 inequality, 205 information technology, 55, 97 infrastructure, 119, 120, 122, 126, 127, 138, 179 ingredients, 107, 156, 179 initiation, 54, 124 insecurity, 27, 49, 60, 92, 111, 114 institutions, 44, 50, 57, 60, 67, 70, 71, 72, 87, 91, 95, 96, 100, 101, 159, 162, 178, 207 integration, 158, 205, 207 integrity, 52, 123, 144, 156, 188 intellectual property, 43, 51, 62, 63, 68, 87, 111 intellectual property rights, 62 interdependence, 40 interest rates, 127 interference, 157 Internal Revenue Service, 106 international (corporate) governance, xi, xii, 32, 75, 76, 91, 92, 103, 105 international affairs, 18, 113, 209 international corporate governance, xi, 32, 91, 100, 103, 104, 105, 106 international law, 60, 71, 72, 87 International Monetary Fund, 70, 207 International Olympic Committee, international relations, x, 18, 51, 53, 67, 207 International Space Station, 16, 199 international terrorism, 164 international trade, 42, 44, 46, 87, 111, 187 internationalization, 40, 135 intervention, 55, 56 intervention price, 55 investment, 42, 55, 58, 62, 87, 111, 127, 129, 137, 187 investment bank, 128 investments, 60, 113, 125 investors, 60, 126 invisible hand, 203 IPR, 47 Iran, 33, 138 iron, 112 Islam, 154, 158, 159, 169, 170, 209 Islamic state, 167 Islamic world, 143 isolation, 99, 101, 105 Israel, 165 issue-area, 41, 51, 60, 62, 75, 79, 110 issue-areas, 41, 51, 60, 62, 75, 79, 110 issues, ix, x, 10, 38, 45, 50, 51, 52, 62, 68, 79, 92, 100, 104, 110, 112, 126, 128, 131, 136, 141, 153, 157, 166, 168, 169, 187, 198, 209 J Japan, 10, 11, 22, 51, 56, 58, 60, 99, 122, 125, 127, 129, 150, 154, 208 jobless, 144 joint ventures, 42, 124 jumping, 7, 19, 40, 94, 195, 205 K kidney, 184 kindergartens, 166 knowledge-based economy, 160 KOH, 153, 157 Korea, 10, 51, 60, 99, 127 L languages, 76, 108, 161, 173 Latin America, 46, 66 laws, 54, 67, 68, 106, 109, 186, 206 lawyers, 115 layoffs, 144 Index LDCs, 69 lead, xi, 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 11, 12, 13, 16, 17, 18, 19, 28, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 37, 38, 43, 44, 45, 52, 64, 75, 76, 77, 78, 83, 86, 88, 91, 92, 93, 128, 138, 143, 150, 180, 185, 191, 192, 193, 195, 198, 199, 200, 201, 202, 203, 204, 205 leadership, 26, 27, 98, 113 leadership style, 27 leakage, 182 learning, 42, 96, 162, 174, 207, 208 learning skills, 96 Least Developed Countries, 54 lending, 70, 100 Less Developed Countries, 47 liberalism, 192 liberalization, 55, 58, 156 light, 11, 107, 192, 195 linear reasoning, 13 Lion, 80 liquefied natural gas, 179 loans, 124, 127, 130, 150 local authorities, 114, 163, 187 local government, 98, 136 logging, 145 logistics, 139, 177 Louisiana, 72 love, 50, 201 M machinery, 139 Mainland China, 16, 121 major issues, 128 majority, 68, 70, 124, 154, 156, 173, 190 malaria, 116 Malaysia External Trade Development Corporation (Matrade), 136 malnutrition, 112 man, 29, 31, 32, 42, 79, 88, 127, 161, 202 management, iv, ix, 17, 18, 19, 22, 26, 31, 32, 33, 34, 41, 42, 46, 61, 81, 91, 97, 100, 104, 110, 114, 119, 120, 121, 126, 131, 141, 146, 150, 164, 207, 208, 209 Mandarin, 119, 153, 155, 170, 174, 195 manufacturing, 40, 75, 87, 88, 109, 136, 137, 146, 147, 180 Marine Corps, 154 market capitalization, 139 market economy, x market opening, 61, 67 market share, 68 marketing, 40, 65, 110, 113, 208, 209 marketing strategy, 113 marketplace, 42 217 marriage, 134 Mars, 13, 199 martial law, 123 mass, 33, 60, 71, 82, 87, 110, 122, 127, 134, 161 mass media, 33, 60, 71, 87, 127, 134, 161 materials, 5, 54, 104, 105, 127, 136 Matrade, 136, 149, 150 matrix, 6, 16, 203, 204, 205 matter, iv, 22, 31, 33, 52, 57, 58, 103, 111, 124, 130, 135, 141, 142, 146, 148, 155, 184, 200, 203, 206 measurement, 110 meat, 55 media, 33, 60, 71, 87, 110, 127, 131, 134, 161, 173, 174, 175 medical, 41, 157, 162, 180, 184 medicine, x melting, 112, 160 memory, 162 mercantilism, 44 merchandise, 59 messages, 48, 166 metaphor, 75, 76, 82, 89 methodology, xii, 1, 75, 76, 81, 82, 83, 207 Mexico, 72 middle class, 198 Middle East, 12, 43, 198 migration, 121 military, 34, 72, 123, 125 military junta, 123 Milky Way, 13, 198 Millennium Round, 58 minimum wage, 144, 146 minorities, 87, 164 mission, 47 missions, 99 misunderstanding, 169 models, 1, 7, 8, 12, 16, 18, 19, 21, 23, 24, 26, 28, 29, 31, 33, 34, 39, 81, 83, 85, 88, 94, 95, 98, 101, 108, 191, 192, 193, 195, 200, 202, 203, 204, 205 modernity, 114 modifications, 114 money measures, 54 monopoly, 139, 180 monthly job losses, 70 Moon, 13, 16, 63, 73, 191, 194, 199 Moses, 173 multi-ethnic, 153 multimedia, 173 multinational firms, 58 Muslims, 138, 142, 151, 169, 170, 171, 173 Myanmar, 123, 189 218 Index N NAFTA, 55 Najib, 139, 140, 141, 142, 143, 153, 154, 155, 156, 157, 159, 160, 163, 164, 165, 166, 167, 168, 169, 174, 175, 180, 189 naming, 169 national borders, 42 national culture, 192 national debt, 41, 189 national identity, 156 national policy, 87, 189 national security, 87, 111, 169, 170 NATO, 52 natural disaster, 203 natural disasters, 203 natural gas, 134, 179 natural science, xi, 101, 199, 206 needy, 112 negative effects, 70 neglect, 105, 110 NEP, 143, 151, 156 New Economic Policy (NEP), 142, 156, 179 New South Wales, 83 New Zealand, 182, 208, 209 NGOs, 41, 51, 60, 71, 87, 100, 136, 149, 150, 158, 162, 172, 177, 189 Nicaragua, 178 niche market, 145 Niels Bohr, 77 Nobel Prize, 6, 16 Non-Bumi, viii, 133, 134, 137, 141, 142, 148, 149, 150, 151 Non-Bumiputras, viii, 133 non-dialectical perspectives, non-governmental organizations, 41, 51, 58, 87, 136, 149, 158, 189 North Africa, 106 North America, 55 North Atlantic Treaty Organization, 52 North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), 52 nuclear weapons, 72 nurses, 157 nutrition, 109 O Obama, 16, 101, 129, 143 obedience, 150 obesity, 112, 180, 184 obstacles, 51, 113 obstruction, 160 oceans, 77, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88 offenders, 145, 172 officials, 34, 96, 100, 101, 121, 123, 124, 128, 129, 130, 144, 145, 155, 186, 198, 209 OH, 42, 43 oil, 46, 129, 145, 159, 162, 179, 182, 184 olive oil, 46 one-dot theory, iv, ix, xii, 6, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 30, 32, 34, 37, 38, 49, 50, 53, 75, 76, 78, 92, 93, 153, 167, 191, 199, 203, 205 ontology, 1, openness, 108 operating revenues, 120 operations, 107, 123, 126, 127, 141, 209 opinion polls, 9, 150 opportunities, 46, 87, 93, 95, 139, 140, 144, 147, 187 opposition parties, 154, 162 optimism, 156 organizational behavior, 209 organizational development, 207 ownership, 107, 120, 121, 142, 147, 156 P Pacific, xi, 20, 35, 38, 56, 69, 77, 83, 92, 95, 96, 99, 106, 117, 123, 149, 152, 192, 208 pain, 202 palm oil, 145 parallel, 196 parents, 97, 159, 173 Parliament, 144, 154, 162, 163, 168, 190 participants, 31, 44, 162, 167, 174 patriotism, 50, 159 PCA, 159 PCM, 154 peace, 80, 89, 134, 164, 168, 169, 172 peer review, 207 Pentagon, 35, 198 per capita income, 136, 166 permission, iv, xi, 20, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 121 permit, 180 personal qualities, 144 personality, 53 persons with disabilities, 150 Peru, 60 PES, 64 petroleum, 80, 134, 181, 184 Philippines, 112, 135, 179, 186 physical activity, 110 physical fitness, 109 Physiological, 26 piracy, 87, 111 plants, 99, 106, 114, 115 platform, 122, 136 playing, 7, 19, 40, 72, 94, 116, 173, 181, 195 219 Index polarization, 142 police, 164, 172, 186, 188 policy, x, 9, 14, 15, 51, 56, 82, 87, 105, 111, 112, 114, 128, 135, 137, 146, 155, 157, 189, 203 policy instruments, 51 policy making, 203 political parties, 142, 154, 161, 167, 172 political party, 159, 161, 165, 167 political power, 58, 151 political system, 203 politics, x, 10, 11, 18, 33, 67, 89, 125, 142, 153, 161, 167, 175, 191, 192, 198, 204, 206 population, 49, 53, 69, 71, 72, 95, 97, 121, 134, 138, 146, 185 portfolio, 120 postal service, 120 poverty, 66, 154, 163 poverty line, 163 power plants, 99 prayer, 142, 169 PRC, 9, 10, 11, 44, 62, 65, 66, 68, 89, 98, 108, 143, 202 predictability, 61 preferential treatment, 61, 62, 69 preparation, iv preservation, 52 preservative, 180 president, 3, 10, 63, 70, 96, 98, 100, 113, 141, 143, 146, 151, 154, 160, 177 President, 64, 67, 80, 89, 99, 110, 143, 160, 172 prevention, 116 primary school, 92, 107, 171 Prime Minister Datuk Seri Najib Tun Razak, 135, 179 priming, 55, 64 principles, 44, 46, 50, 51, 53, 61, 72, 82, 86, 111, 115, 155 private investment, 129 privatization, 119 producers, 53, 56, 57, 66, 69, 181, 189 production costs, 136 production quota, 56 production technology, 34 professional development, 149 professionalism, 164 professionals, 157 profit, 33, 41, 46, 48, 76, 79, 80, 82, 83, 85, 88, 93, 97, 99, 104, 120, 123, 125, 135, 151, 181, 182, 188 profit margin, 182 profitability, 104 project, 97, 108, 119, 120, 121, 122, 123, 124, 125, 126, 127, 129, 130, 140, 141, 159, 209 proliferation, 79, 87, 103, 107, 111 propaganda, 175 property rights, 55, 62, 87, 205 prosperity, 57, 79, 89, 138, 156 protection, 43, 52, 56, 61, 64, 87, 111, 116 psychology, 166, 175 psychopaths, 192 public administration, 207 public affairs, 113 public health, 69 public opinion, 9, 11, 150 public sector, 41, 49, 51, 144 public service, 108 public-private partnerships, 100, 178 publishing, 164 Q quality assurance, 96 quantification, x question mark, 83, 85 quotas, 46, 51, 55, 56, 58, 68, 69 R race, 135, 142, 153, 155, 157, 158, 159, 160, 164, 166, 168, 175 racism, 157, 162 radio, 110 rational (choice) theory, 33, 191, 197, 199, 203 rationality, 15 raw materials, 104, 105, 136 reading, xii, 49, 76, 77, 83 real estate, 147 reality, ix, x, xi, 4, 5, 8, 13, 18, 30, 31, 32, 33, 47, 56, 77, 78, 84, 93, 94, 115, 142, 150, 155, 168, 178, 198, 199 reasoning, 12, 13, 43, 84, 170, 189 recall, 203 recovery, 70, 71 recycling, 109, 114 redundancy, 199, 202 reform, 51, 56, 61, 65, 67, 124, 175 Reform, xi, 54, 61 reforms, 65, 168 refugees, 87, 189 regime-related issue, 60, 100, 105 regulations, 51, 54, 63, 70, 80, 140, 177, 194 rehabilitation, 55 relatives, 170 relief, 54, 126, 127 religion, 1, 6, 77, 79, 153, 159, 161, 164, 168, 169 religious beliefs, 89 renewable energy, 80 220 Index rent, 138, 141, 146 repackaging, 135 reporters, 170 reputation, 135, 141 requirements, 48, 97 researchers, xi, 16 reserves, 116 resettlement, 124 resolution, 62, 192 resources, 15, 40, 42, 48, 80, 100, 114, 115, 141, 149, 178, 192 response, ix, 112, 121, 199 responsiveness, 108 restaurants, 97, 110, 137, 146, 180 restrictions, 53, 55, 61, 156, 168 restructuring, 185 retail, 111, 141, 179, 181, 184, 186 retaliation, 58 revenue, 33, 96, 98, 114, 120, 134, 139, 140, 190 rhetoric, 156, 160 rights, iv, 51, 55, 57, 62, 69, 86, 87, 100, 103, 108, 111, 112, 115, 120, 157, 173, 178, 189, 205 risk, 47, 56, 78, 87, 120, 144, 168 risks, 129, 143 ROI, 44, 92, 107, 108, 127, 158, 179 roots, x, 205 routes, 126, 188 routines, 158 rubber, 145 rule of law, 98, 108 rules, 10, 44, 51, 53, 57, 60, 61, 62, 63, 67, 68, 70, 72, 80, 86, 91, 122, 177, 194 rules of origin, 51 rural areas, 164, 183 Russia, 127, 177 S safe zone, 7, 8, 13, 19, 21, 22, 24, 29, 31, 39, 40, 41, 45, 78, 80, 94, 168, 193, 195, 199 safety, 63, 69, 124, 126, 128, 187 salmon, 156 sanctions, 33, 69, 71, 72, 109, 129 Saudi Arabia, 12, 169 scale economies, 58 scarcity, 112 scholarship, ix, 30, 32 school, xi, 1, 52, 71, 92, 103, 105, 107, 108, 112, 142, 144, 147, 158, 171 schooling, 161 science, ix, x, xi, 1, 5, 6, 18, 32, 33, 40, 47, 77, 79, 89, 97, 101, 128, 166, 192, 199, 206, 207 scope, 47, 57, 71, 91 scripts, 97 sea level, 112 security, 47, 52, 86, 87, 89, 103, 111, 121, 125, 165, 169, 170, 172 seed, 111 seminars, 158, 209 sensitivity, 164 service provider, 120 service quality, 209 services, iv, 40, 42, 51, 58, 59, 60, 62, 66, 75, 87, 88, 89, 111, 120, 139, 146, 153, 159, 209 settlements, 163 sex, 192 shape, xi, 22, 113 shareholders, 87, 104, 110, 123, 125, 126, 127, 130, 139 sheep, 55 shortage, 72, 97, 162, 177, 178, 179, 181, 182, 183, 184, 186, 190 showing, 33, 70, 114, 174, 179, 195 side effects, x signalling, 125 Singapore, ix, 3, 4, 60, 91, 125, 138, 139, 168, 175, 182, 187, 192, 210 sleeping pills, 128 small businesses, 47, 209 smoking, 96 smuggling, 177, 186, 188 Smuggling, 186 social context, 31 social justice, 108, 155 social responsibility, 99, 147 society, 52, 64, 79, 80, 86, 87, 92, 100, 105, 150 sociology, 101 soft loan, 127 software, 86 solar system, 198 sole proprietor, 186 solid waste, 114 solution, 166, 174 South Africa, 157 Southeast Asia, 4, 10, 11, 135, 206, 208 sovereign state, 87 sovereignty, 44, 76 Soviet Union, 72 space shuttle, 73 speculation, 130, 184, 187 speech, 57, 106, 111, 113, 115, 116, 129, 143, 160 stability, 108, 164, 167, 168, 169 state, ix, xi, 3, 10, 18, 42, 43, 52, 55, 63, 66, 73, 76, 79, 86, 92, 93, 97, 100, 120, 123, 124, 129, 133, 134, 135, 149, 154, 157, 158, 159, 161, 162, 163, 167, 169, 177, 178, 183, 185, 188, 189, 204 state-owned enterprises, 42 Index states, 40, 55, 58, 65, 67, 68, 79, 87, 129, 138, 142, 154, 157, 161, 163, 170, 178, 185 statistics, 179, 208 stimulus, 129 stock exchange, 139 stock price, 196 stomach, 112, 198 storage, 87, 111, 114 strategic management, 46, 207 structure, x, xi, 18, 21, 22, 23, 31, 33, 44, 45, 46, 57, 71, 95, 122, 168, 200 style, x, 26, 27, 29, 87, 120, 172, 192 Styles, 29 subscribers, 33, 206 subsidy, 55, 62, 163, 179, 183, 187, 190 substitutes, 93 Sudan, 10 sugar shortage, 177, 178, 179, 181, 182, 184, 186, 190 suicide, 137 Sun, 44, 83, 210 supernatural, 1, 50 supplier, 182, 185 suppliers, 60, 93, 104, 110, 112, 113, 128, 140, 180, 181, 182, 183, 185, 186, 188 supply chain, 110, 139 supply disruption, 182 Supreme Council, 167 surplus, 143 surveillance, 188 survival, 44, 107, 140 sustainability, 110, 111, 207 sustainable development, 166 Switzerland, SWOT, vii, 91, 93, 94, 98, 101 syndrome, 116 synthesis, 5, 193 systems theory, 191, 199, 203, 205 T tactics, 14, 173 Taiwan, v, vii, xi, xii, 5, 7, 10, 11, 19, 26, 40, 50, 56, 57, 68, 94, 97, 99, 100, 105, 119, 120, 121, 122, 123, 124, 125, 127, 128, 129, 131, 144, 167, 168, 189, 195, 199, 206, 207, 208, 210 Taiwan High Speed Rail (THSR), 119 Taiwan Strait crisis, 12 takeover, 124 target, 125, 159, 184 tariff, 45, 46, 51, 54, 55, 56, 61, 66, 136 tax incentive, 146 taxation, 208 TCC, 99 221 teaching experience, 207 teams, 187 techniques, 22, 199, 209 technology, 8, 32, 34, 40, 55, 57, 65, 97, 99, 101, 114, 122, 137, 166, 187, 207, 208 telecommunications, 63, 66, 87, 111 telecommunications services, 66 telephone, 11, 120 telephones, 110 television commercial, 192 temperature, 99 tension, 52, 86, 171 territorial, 62 territory, 10, 63 terrorism, 42, 87, 111, 164 testing, 5, 195 textbook, xi, 17, 204, 207 textbooks, 77 textiles, 28, 53, 55, 63 Thailand, 135, 178, 186 therapy, 202 Third World, 68, 116 thoughts, 172 threats, 93, 163 THSR, 119, 121, 122, 126, 128 THSR Corporation (THSRC), 119 THSRC, 120, 121, 122, 123, 124, 125, 126, 127, 128, 129, 130 Tibet, xii, 116 time series, 209 time/space sequence, ix, xiii, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12, 18, 19, 21, 22, 24, 26, 29, 31, 32, 33, 39, 40, 43, 78, 80, 84, 85, 93, 94, 95, 168, 193, 194, 195, 196, 198, 200, 201, 202, 203 time-frame, 193 tornadoes, 192 tracks, 122 trade, ix, 38, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 48, 49, 51, 53, 54, 55, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 71, 72, 73, 82, 87, 88, 89, 99, 103, 107, 109, 111, 115, 137, 143, 165, 174, 187, 203, 209 trade agreement, 51, 61, 63, 68 trade deficit, 51 trade policy, 51 trade war, 44, 45, 69 trading partners, 51 training, 27, 73, 77, 109, 121, 141, 147 training programs, 147 traits, 145 transactions, 20, 42, 184 translation, 60, 86, 171, 199 transnational corporations, 41, 48, 51, 59, 60, 71 222 Index transparency, 52, 60, 61, 68, 86, 108, 109, 144, 163, 164 transport, 16, 55, 59, 66, 128, 184 transportation, 46, 120, 121, 125, 129, 177, 179, 181, 182, 187 Treasury, 70, 179 Treasury Secretary, 70 treaties, 67 treatment, 56, 58, 60, 61, 62, 64, 69, 114 tuberculosis, 116 tuition, 96 Turkey, 209 turnover, 182 U U.S economy, 70 U.S Treasury, 70 UK, 69, 207, 208, 209 umbilical cord, 11 UN, 33, 44, 50, 51, 61, 66, 69, 89, 98, 99, 100, 105, 108, 111, 115, 168, 202, 206 unacceptable risk, 143 unemployment rate, 136 unilateralism, 58, 178 United, v, 7, 11, 19, 33, 40, 41, 43, 44, 45, 46, 50, 51, 56, 58, 60, 64, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 72, 89, 92, 94, 98, 100, 105, 106, 107, 114, 115, 120, 121, 129, 130, 135, 141, 143, 153, 154, 159, 165, 168, 201, 202, 209 United Kingdom, 69, 209 United Nations, 33, 41, 44, 45, 50, 51, 89, 98, 105, 168, 202, 209 United States, v, 11, 43, 46, 56, 58, 60, 64, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 72, 89, 92, 100, 106, 107, 114, 115, 120, 121, 129, 130, 135, 143, 165, 202 universe, 3, 4, 22, 45, 77, 78, 81, 82, 88, 198, 199, 205 universities, 48, 95, 96, 97, 113, 164, 173, 207 updating, 114 urban, 116, 121, 159, 163, 169, 183 urban areas, 163, 169 Uruguay, 58, 63 Uruguay Round, 58, 63 USA, 129, 207 USDA, 115 V Valencia, 51, 52 variables, 127 variations, 120, 205 varieties, 56 vegetables, 156 Vice President, 110, 172 victims, 144, 184 Vietnam, vision, 84, 88, 92, 151, 155, 158, 166, 174, 194 Vitamin C, 114 vitamins, 112 vote, 67, 154 voters, 134, 154, 159, 170 voting, 67 W wages, 27, 142, 146 war, 44, 45, 57, 66, 87, 111, 171, 203 Warsaw Pact, 52 Washington, 41, 45, 57, 61, 69, 72, 121, 129, 143 waste, 105, 114 waste management, 114 water, 4, 8, 88, 107, 108, 109, 110, 112, 113, 114, 137, 138, 181, 192 water resources, 114 weakness, 98, 107 wealth, 137, 162 weapons, 72 web, 42, 122 weblog, 108, 109, 115 webpages, 111 websites, 164 welfare, 165 well-being, 42, 79, 139, 165, 166 Western Australia, 207 Western countries, 43 wholesale, 97, 181, 184 workers, 27, 31, 47, 71, 98, 116, 137, 138, 141, 144, 146, 162, 165, 182, 189 workforce, 144, 163 workload, 98 workplace, 112, 150 World Bank, 51, 61, 72, 146, 166 World Trade Organization, vii, xii, 46, 49, 50, 51, 56, 57, 58, 66 World Trade Organization (WTO), vii, xii, 46, 49, 50, 56 World Trade Regime (WTR), 49, 50 world trading system, 66 World War I, x, 52, 69, 70, 100, 105, 106, 178 worldwide, 92, 107, 110, 183 WTO, vii, xii, 46, 47, 49, 50, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73 WTR, 49, 50, 52, 53, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 62, 63, 64, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73 223 Index Y Yale University, 48 yang, 170 Yaounde, 69 yield, 86 Yin and Yang diagram, x, xi, xiii, 1, 3, 5, 17, 18, 19, 21, 22, 82, 101, 133, 134, 148, 151, 168 yuan, 130 Z zinc, 112
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