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www.dbebooks.com - Free Books & magazines E-Banking Management: Issues, Solutions, and Strategies Mahmood Shah Lancashire Business School, University of Central Lancashire, UK Steve Clarke University of Hull, UK Information Science reference Hershey • New York Director of Editorial Content: Senior Managing Editor: Managing Editor: Assistant Managing Editor: Typesetter: Cover Design: Printed at: Kristin Klinger Jamie Snavely Jeff Ash Carole Coulson Jeff Ash Lisa Tosheff Yurchak Printing Inc Published in the United States of America by Information Science Reference (an imprint of IGI Global) 701 E Chocolate Avenue Hershey PA 17033 Tel: 717-533-8845 Fax: 717-533-8661 E-mail: cust@igi-global.com Web site: http://www.igi-global.com/reference and in the United Kingdom by Information Science Reference (an imprint of IGI Global) Henrietta Street Covent Garden London WC2E 8LU Tel: 44 20 7240 0856 Fax: 44 20 7379 0609 Web site: http://www.eurospanbookstore.com Copyright © 2009 by IGI Global All rights reserved No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored or distributed in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, without written permission from the publisher Product or company names used in this set are for identification purposes only Inclusion of the names of the products or companies does not indicate a claim of ownership by IGI Global of the trademark or registered trademark Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Shah, Mahmood, 1971E-banking management : issues, solutions, and strategies / by Mahmood Shah and Steve Clarke p cm Includes bibliographical references and index Summary: “This book focuses on human, operational, managerial, and strategic organizational issues in e-banking”-Provided by publisher ISBN 978-1-60566-252-7 (hardcover) ISBN 978-1-60566-253-4 (ebook) Internet banking Banks and banking Automation Bank management I Clarke, Steve, 1950- II Title HG1708.7.S53 2009 332.10285’4678 dc22 2009000081 British Cataloguing in Publication Data A Cataloguing in Publication record for this book is available from the British Library All work contributed to this book is new, previously-unpublished material The views expressed in this book are those of the authors, but not necessarily of the publisher Table of Contents Preface vii Acknowledgment ix Chapter I E-Banking Management: An Introduction Introduction What is E-Banking? Evolution of E-Banking Why is E-Banking Important E-Marketing Chapter Summary References Chapter II Delivery of Retail Banking Services Introduction History of Retail Banking 10 Structure of Retail Banking 11 Role of ICT in Banking 12 Other Important Factors Driving Changes in the Banking Industry 14 Chapter Summary 16 References 16 Chapter III An Overview of E-Banking 18 Introduction 18 Models for Electronic Services Delivery 18 From E-Commerce to E-Banking 21 Future of E-Banking 25 Chapter Summary 27 References 28 Chapter IV E-Banking Technologies 30 Introduction 30 The Internet 31 Mobile Banking Technologies 33 Backend Systems 38 Middleware 43 Website Development Issues 47 E-Banking Systems as a Whole 50 Chapter Summary 51 References 52 Chapter V A Managerial View of E-Banking 56 Introduction 56 Management Challenges 56 Treading the Organizational Maze 63 Managing Relationships with Customers 67 Managing External Relationships Marketing and Sales 74 Regulations Management 79 Chapter Summary 81 References 82 Chapter VI Human Involvement and E-Banking 86 Introduction 86 Human Involvement 87 Information Systems as Social Systems 90 Scoping E-Banking Management: The Critical Assessment of System Boundaries 93 Discussion: Future Trends 95 Conclusion 98 Findings 98 References 100 Chapter VII Problematic Issues in E-Banking Management 103 Introduction 103 Technology Related Problems 104 Management Problems 106 Chapter Summary 125 References 126 Chapter VIII Key to Success: Cases and Practical Solutions 130 Introduction 130 Finding the Root Causes: Key Techniques 130 How was it Done: Real Success Stories 133 Planning for Innovation and Sustainable Growth 159 Chapter Summary 164 References 164 Chapter IX E-Banking Project Management 167 Introduction 167 Project Management Overview 167 Project Planning 168 Setting Success Criteria 169 A Systems Approach to Project Management 182 Manageing Human Issues 184 Chapter Summary 186 References 186 Chapter X Systems Thinking and Knowledge Management for E-Banking 190 Introduction 190 Organisations and Their Management 191 The Philosophy and Theory of Social Systems 194 Knowledge Management from its Philosophical and Theoretical Roots 196 A Brief Review of the Literature 197 What Does this Mean for Knowledge Management and its Application to E-Banking 204 Social Systems Theory: Applying Knowledge Management to E-Banking .211 A Critical Systems Framework for Knowledge Management in E-Business 214 Total Systems Intervention and the Complementarist Framework 216 Discussion and Critique 221 A Future for Knowledge Management and E-Banking 222 Conclusion 224 References 225 Chapter XI Strategy Development for E-Banking 229 Introduction 229 Corporate Strategy as Plans for Patterns 230 Strategy Development Tools: Strategic Alignment 232 Competitive Advantage 244 Stitching it Together 252 Chapter Summary 253 References 253 Chapter XII E-Banking: A Fuller Picture 255 Introduction 255 Reasons for Implementing E-Banking 256 Benefits of E-Banking 259 Barriers to E-Banking 264 Technical Issues in E-Banking 267 Tools for Managing E-Banking 269 Social Issues 270 Project Management Issues 271 Stitching it Together: Recommendations 273 Concluding Remarks 285 References 286 Glossary 290 About the Authors 295 Index 296 vii Preface This book will explore issues critical for success in providing e-banking The aim is to assist organizations in utilising the opportunities offered by this relatively new set of technologies This book largely restricts itself to the organizational view of the problem, and is therefore primarily focused on organizational internal factors External factors, such as the political or economical environment in which an organization operates, are well covered in other publications and will not be repeated in detail here It is not intended that the book should replace texts on existing management practices in its focused field, but rather that it be used as a complement to them The main target audiences include undergraduate as well as postgraduate students of business administration, general management and technology management as well as practitioners of e-banking The expected contributions to the academic community include development of a deeper understanding of the issues involved in e-banking as well as practical suggestions on how to tackle these issues Apart from the introductory chapter, all other chapters are written as independent pieces so readers of this book can choose to consult the part of the book which is most relevant to the problem in hand E-banking forces most financial institutions to re-examine their systems and practices and to look for new ways to deliver their services over the Web To that effectively they seek to improve work flow, reduce paper work, provide online document imaging for users and create industry wide standards in order to improve cost efficiencies and profitability This leads to many technical, managerial and strategic issues Chapters I, II, and III present an overview of these issues, which will be covered in greater depth in subsequent chapters E-banking related technical issues may include developing an infrastructure to ensure 24-hour availability, integrating backend, front end and other supporting tools to create a seamless experience for the customer, and collection/analysis of data which enables the provision of timely information to the management for effective decision making These issues are covered in chapters IV, VII and VIII Managerial issues include maximizing the generation of Internet revenue and differentiating a bank’s services and products from other banks Banks may fail if viii they are thinking only of providing low cost transactions Re-organizing teams, departments or even the whole organization may also come into management’s remit Managing e-commerce projects, employing new ways of product development, marketing and selling to satisfy the needs of increasingly sophisticated customers are some of the key management challenges as well as complying with national, regional (such as European Union) and international regulations These issues are covered in Chapters V, VI, VII, VIII, IX X and XI Strategic issues include determining the overall direction of the business, dealing with changes in the market, developing industry wide alliances for products/ services development, and re-structuring organizations to cope with new business models These issues are covered in Chapter VII, VIII, X and XI Chapter XII is summary of issues and solutions covered in this book Problems such as security, dealing with cyber-crimes, threats from new entrants to markets such as Internet only banks or supermarkets are also covered in relevant sections of the text ix Acknowledgment Our gratitude is owed to colleagues past and present for their help and support in producing this book including professor Ray Paul, professor John Ward and David Walters We also thank IGI Global for the support they provided during development of this book and reviews whom valuable comments helped improve this book An finally our thanks will have to go to our partners and families for their patience and support during writing of this book Mahmood Shah & Steve Clarke E-Banking 285 At first sight the advantages of establishing new distribution channels with respect to costs, market-reach and potential penetration seem to be promising However, a ‘blind’ investment in novel forms of distribution can also have severe disadvantages A traditional branch-based bank establishing a separate direct banking firm and lower margins could suffer negative externalities by cannibalising their traditional market and jeopardising overall profits On the other hand, competitors will also consider how to make best use of various distribution channels including the question of whether or not it might be advantageous to combine innovative forms of distribution channels with traditional ones (Buhl & Will, 1998) Concluding Remarks e-banking is making significant progress in terms of customers’ adoption, functionality and profitability for banks However it still faces a number of threats including security and privacy issues which will have to be dealt with to ensure long term survival It is difficult to predict the future, but some remarks can be made based on the experience so far In our view, the next developments in e-banking will involve new products and services that were not feasible in traditional banking models This could involve making instant payments (possibly using mobile phones), or tools to help people manage their multi-bank financial portfolio Internet only banking may also become more viable as the functionality of e-banking grows, and customers adapt to the new ways of conducting their financial activities International banking might become a reality for ordinary consumers as banking payments systems are increasingly harmonised For example, in Europe, new measures are being introduced by the European Union to allow cross-border provision of e-commerce services by providing a single payment system Some companies such as IBM have expressed their vision of the future of financial services, complete with biometrics, state-of-the-art branch offices, enterprise risk-management systems, and advanced customer interaction (Marlin, 2005) Some of the technologies associated with such a vision are already in use but the feasibility of industry-wide use is still difficult to predict Schneider (2005) predicted that in fifty years customers will carry a translucent plastic bank card displaying a talking head with artificial intelligence Cash and checks will have been eliminated in favour of the new electronic currency of “credits,” which will be much easier to transfer, maybe using mobile phones The early signs are that it is already started to happen Developments in biometric technologies may help to deal with the most persistent security issues as well as dealing with customers’ difficulties in remembering many different login keys Copyright © 2009, IGI Global, distributing in print or electronic forms without written permission of IGI Global is prohibited 286 Shah & Clarke References Appleton, E L (1997) How to Survive ERP, Datamation, March, 50-53 Bareil, C (2002) Managing Resistance to Change or Readiness to Change? http:// web.hec.ca/sites/ceto/fichiers/04_02.pdf Berger, S C., & Gensler, S (2007 April) Online banking customers: insights from Germany Journal of Internet Banking and Commerce, 12(1) http://www.arraydev com/commerce/jibc/2007-04/SvenBergerFinal_PDFVersion.pdf Birch, D., & Young, M A (1997) Financial Services and the Internet - What does Cyber-Space Mean for the Financial Services Industry?, Internet Research: Electronic Networking Applications and Policy, 7(2), 120-128 Brown, I., Cajee, Z., Davies, D & Stroebel, S (2003) Cell phone banking: predictors of adoption on South Africa An exploratory study International Journal of Information Management, 23(5), 381-394 Buhl, H U., & Will, A (1998) Economic Aspects of Electronic Commerce in Financial Services and Advantageous Steps to Extended Offers in Internet Banking In Blanning, R W., King, D R (Eds.) Proceedings of 31st Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, Internet and Digital Economy Track, IEEE Computer Society, Hawaii, USA Chankar, V., Urban, G L., & Sultan, F (2002) Online trust: a stakeholder perspective, concepts, implications, and future directions The Journal of Strategic Information Systems, 11(3-4), 325-344 Clarke, S A (2007) Information Systems Strategic Management: An Integrated Approach, (2nd Ed.) London: Routledge Clarke, S A & B Lehaney (1998) Intervention Methodologies in Coercive Situations Analytical Approaches to Studying Power and Influence in Contemporary Political/Military Affairs Farnborough, UK: Defence Evaluation Research Agency, Farnborough Cheng, T C E Lam, D Y C & Yeung, A C L (2006) Adoption of internet banking: An empirical study in Hong Kong Decision Support Systems, 42, 1558–1572 Chesher, M., & Kaura, R (1998) Electronic Commerce and Business Communications Springer, London, UK Consoli, D (2003, September) The evolution of retail banking services in United Kingdom: a retrospective analysis.(CRIC Working Paper No 13, ISBN: 84052 011 6) Copyright © 2009, IGI Global, distributing in print or electronic forms without written permission of IGI Global is prohibited E-Banking 287 Dewan, R., Seidmann, A (2001, June) Current Issues in e-Banking Communications of the ACM, 44(5), 31-32 Engen, J (2000) Financial Funnel Banking Strategies, 76(6), 64–72 Fonseca, J (2001) Complexity and Innovation in Organisations Routledge: London Franco, S C., Klein, T (1999) Online banking report Piper Jaffray Equity Research., www.pjc.com/ec-ie01.asp?team=2 Greenland, S J (1994) Rationalization and Restructuring in the Financial Services Sector International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 22(6) 21-28 Han, K S., & Noh, M H (1999-2000) Critical Failure Factors That Discourage the Growth of Electronic Commerce International Journal of Electronic Commerce, Winter, 4(2), 25-43 Harden, G (2002) E-banking Comes to Town: Exploring how Traditional UK High Street Banks are Meeting the Challenge of Technology and Virtual Relationships Journal of Financial Services Marketing, 6(4), 323-332 IBM Global Services (2001) E-business Strategies for Conventional Insurers IBM White Paper http://www-5.ibm.com/services/uk/pdf/e-bus-strat.pdf Jayawardhena, C., & Foley, P (2000) Changes in the banking sector: The case of Internet banking in the UK Internet Research: Electronic Networking Applications and Policy, 10(1), 19-30 Julta, D N., Craig, J., & Bodorik, P (2001 January 3-6) A Methodology for Creating e-Business Strategy In Sprague, R H J (Ed.), Proceedings of the 34th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences: Minitrack Infrastructure for e-Business on the Internet, Maui, Hawaii, USA Kalakota, R., & Robinson, M (1999) e-Business, Roadmap for Success , Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Kim, D J., Ferrin, D L., & Rao, H R (2003) A Study of the Effect of Consumer Trust on Consumer Expectations and Satisfaction: the Korean Experience In Proceedings of the 5th international conference on ElectronicA literature review of online trust in business to consumer e-commerce transactions, 2001-2006 Volume 8(2), Issues in Information Systems commerce, 310-315 Knorr, E., Rist, O (2005, Nov 7) 10 Steps SOA.  InfoWorld,  27(45),  23-35 San Mateo, CA http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=930819081&sid=7&Fmt=3&cli entId=3224&RQT=309&VName=PQD Copyright © 2009, IGI Global, distributing in print or electronic forms without written permission of IGI Global is prohibited 288 Shah & Clarke Kramer, M I (2000) How to Succeed @ e-business IBM White Paper http:// www-3.ibm.com/e-business/resource/pdf/16768.pdf Larsen, L B (2004, November) The Automatic Pool Trainer - a Platform for Experiments with Multi Modal User Interaction In Proceedings of the Fourth Danish HCI Research Symposium, Aalborg University, Denmark Liao, Z & Cheung, M T (2005, March 29-31) Service Quality in Internet E-banking: A User-based Core Framework In Proceedings of the 2005 IEEE International Conference on E-technology, E-commerce and E-service, (pp 628-631) Marlin, S (2005, July 01) Banking for the 21st Century Bank Systems & Technology Martin, M H (1998, February 2) An ERP Strategy, Fortune, 95-97 McDougall, P (2007, February 13) Credit Suisse Outsources to BT in Deal Worth $1.1 Billion Information Week Mitchell, M.E (2001) Human resource issues and challenges for e-business American International College Journal of Business http://www.encyclopedia com/doc/1G1-82256136.html Mols, N P (1999) The Internet and the Banks’ Strategic Distribution Channel Decisions International Journal of Bank Marketing, 17(6) 295-300 Mols, N P (1998) The Behavioural Consequences of PC Banking International Journal of Bank Marketing, 16(5) 195-201 Morton, R., & Chester, M (1997) Transforming the Business: the IT Contribution London: McGraw-Hill O, Donnell, T (2007 March) Addressing SOA’s Vulnerability.Visual Studio Magazine Retrieved June 22, 2008 from http://visualstudiomagazine.com/features/article aspx? editorialsid=2311 Owens, I., & Robertson, D (2000, April 26-28) Aligning e-Commerce with Business Strategy: The Case of the Bank of Scotland In Proceedings of the 5th UKAIS Conference (pp 67-75), University of Wales Institute, Cardiff, UK Regan, K., & Macaluso, N (2000, October 3) Report: Consumers Cool to Net Banking E-Commerce Times http://www.ecommercetimes.com/news/articles2000/001003-4.shtml Samuals, M (2002, May 16) More Europeans are Logging On Computing, 3334 Copyright © 2009, IGI Global, distributing in print or electronic forms without written permission of IGI Global is prohibited E-Banking 289 Schneider, I (2005, May 26) Citibank, Daring to Dream of the Year 2054, Warns of Lessons of History Bank Systems & Technology Sergeant, C (2000) E banking: risks and responses Financial Services Authority, London http://www.fsa.gov.uk/Pages/Library/Communication/Speeches/2000/ sp46.shtml Shah, M H Braganza, A., & Morabito, V (2007) A Survey of Critical Success Factors in e-Banking: An Organisational Perspective European Journal of Information Systems, 16(4), 511-524 http://www.palgrave-journals.com/ejis/journal/v16/ n4/index.html Talha, M., Shrivastva, D., Kabra, P., Sallehhuddin, A., & Salim, A (2004) Problems and Prospects of Internet Marketing Journal of Internet Banking and Commerce, 9(1), http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=abstract&id=169650&toc=y Temkin, D (2007, June 26) Banks Prepare For Customer Experience Wars Forester Report Retrieved October 30, 2008 from www.forrester.com Turban, E., Lee, J., King, D., & Shung, H M (2000) Electronic Commerce, a Managerial Perspective London: Prentice Hall Walczuch, R., Braven, G D., & Lundgren, H (2000, August 10-13) Internet Adoption Barriers for Small Firms in the Netherlands In Chung, H M (Ed.) Proceedings of the Americas Conference on Information Systems: Organisation Track, 2, (pp 672-680) Long Beach, CA Young, R D., Lang, W W., Nolle, D L., (2007) How the Internet affects output and performance at community banks Journal of Banking & Finance, 31, 1033–1060 Zahra, A.A., & George, G (2002) Absorptive Capacity: A Review Re-conceptualisation and Extension Academy of Management Review, 27(2), 185-203 Zimmermann, H., & Koerner, V (1999, August 13-15) Emerging Industrial Structures in the Digital Economy - the Case of the Financial Industry In Haseman, W D (Ed.), Proceedings of the 5th American Conference on Information Systems, (pp 115-117) Milwaukee, WI Copyright © 2009, IGI Global, distributing in print or electronic forms without written permission of IGI Global is prohibited 290 Glossary Glossary Account Aggregation: A service that gathers account information from many different sources, presents that information to the customer in a consolidated format and often allows the customer to conduct their financial management related task on a single page Account Management: Activities such as balance inquiry, statement balancing, transfers between the customer’s accounts at the same financial institution, maintenance of personal information, etc Application Service Provider (ASP): Also known as “apps-on-tap,” an ASP is a company that offers access to software and/or network applications, typically via an Internet connection ASP services provide an attractive option to companies wishing to minimize up front costs and reduce internal support requirements Automated Clearing House (ACH): A computerized facility used by member depository institutions to electronically combine, sort, and distribute inter-bank credits and debits ACHs process electronic transfers of government securities and provided customer services, such as direct deposit of customers’ salaries and government benefit payments (i.e., social security, welfare, and veterans’ entitlements), and preauthorized transfers Automated Teller Machine (ATM): A machine, activated by a magnetically encoded card or other medium, that can process a variety of banking transactions These may include accepting deposits and loan payments, providing withdrawals, and transferring funds between accounts Copyright © 2009, IGI Global Copying or distributing in print or electronic forms without written permission of IGI Global is prohibited Glossary 291 Authentication: Verification of identify by a computer system based on presentation of unique identifiers Bank Statement: Periodically the bank provides a statement of a customer’s deposit account It shows all deposits made, all checks paid, and other debits posted during the period (usually one month), as well as the current balance Bill Presentment: An e-banking service whereby a business submits an electronic bill or invoice directly to the customer’s financial institution The customer can view the bill/invoice on-line and, if needed, pay the bill through an electronic payment facility Biometrics: The method of verifying a person’s identify by analyzing a unique physical attribute of the individual (e.g., fingerprint, retinal scanning etc) Certificate Authority (CA): The entity or organization that attests using a digital certificate that a particular electronic message comes from a specific individual or an organization Checking Account: Also called current account A demand deposit account subject to withdrawal of funds by check Current Account: Also called checking account A demand deposit account subject to withdrawal of funds by check Customer Relationship Management: The strategies, processes, people and technologies used by companies to successfully attract and retain customers for maximum corporate growth and profit CRM initiatives are designed with the goal of meeting customer expectations and needs in order to achieve maximum customer lifetime value and return to the enterprise As a primary sales, service and retention touch point for many companies, the Contact Center is a critical component of a successful CRM strategy Data Mining: Data mining entails analyzing information for previously undiscovered correlations between two markets Data mining connections can be made through associations (baseball fans also watch football), sequences (buying wood and then buying paint), forecasting (based on patterns found), and clustering (grouping information in a new way) Debit Card: A debit card allows the account holders to access their funds in a current/check account electronically Debit cards may be used to obtain cash from automated teller machines or purchase goods or services using point-of-sale systems The use of a debit card often involves immediate debiting and crediting of consumers’ accounts Digital Certificate: The electronic equivalent of an ID card that authenticates the source of a digital signature Copyright © 2009, IGI Global Copying or distributing in print or electronic forms without written permission of IGI Global is prohibited 292 Glossary Digital Signatures: A security option that uses two keys, one public and one private, which are used to encrypt messages before transmission and to decrypt them on receipt E-Banking: In its very basic form, e-banking can mean the provision of information about a bank and its services via a home page on the World Wide Web (WWW) More sophisticated e-banking services provide customer access to accounts, the ability to move their money between different accounts, and making payments or applying for loans via e-Channels Electronic Bill Payment: An e-banking application whereby customers direct the financial institution to transfer funds to the account of another person or business Payment is typically made by ACH credit or by the institution (or bill payment servicer) sending a paper check on the customer’s behalf Encryption: A data security technique used to protect information from unauthorized inspection or alteration Information is encoded so that it appears as a meaningless string of letters and symbols during delivery or transmission Upon receipt, the information is decoded using an encryption key Firewall: A hardware or software link in a network that relays only data packets clearly intended and authorized to reach the other side HTML: Abbreviation for “Hypertext Markup Language.” A set of codes that can be inserted into text files to indicate special typefaces, inserted images, and links to other hypertext documents Hyperlink: An item on a webpage that, when selected, transfers the user directly to another location in a hypertext document or to another webpage, perhaps on a different machine Also simply called a “link.” Information Management: Describes the measures required for the effective collection, storage, access, use and disposal of information to support agency business processes The core of these measures is the management of the definition, ownership, sensitivity, quality and accessibility of information These measures are addressed at appropriate stages in the strategic planning lifecycle and applied at appropriate stages in the operational lifecycle of the information itself Information Systems (IS): Organised collections of hardware, software, supplies, policies, procedures and people, which store, process and provide access to information Interest: The term interest is used to describe the cost of using money, a right, share, or title in property Interest Rate: The amount paid by a borrower to a lender in exchange for the use of the lender’s money for a certain period of time Interest is paid on loans or Copyright © 2009, IGI Global Copying or distributing in print or electronic forms without written permission of IGI Global is prohibited Glossary 293 on debt instruments, such as notes or bonds, either at regular intervals or as part of a lump sum payment when the issue matures Internet: A cooperative message-forwarding system linking computer networks all over the world Legacy Systems: A term commonly used to refer to existing computers systems and applications with which new systems or applications must exchange information Mortgage: A debt instrument used in a real estate transaction where the property is the collateral for the loan A mortgage gives the lender a right to take possession of the property if the borrower fails to pay off the loan National Bank: A bank that is subject to the supervision of the Comptroller of the Currency The Office of the Comptroller of the Currency is a bureau of the U.S Treasury Department A national bank can be recognized because it must have “national” or “national association” in its name Online Banking: A service that allows an account holder to obtain account information and manage certain banking transactions through a personal computer via the financial institution’s web site on the Internet (This is also known as Internet or e-banking.) Operating Subsidiary: National banks conduct some of their banking activities through companies called operating subsidiaries These subsidiaries are companies that are owned or controlled by a national bank and that, among other things, offer banking products and services such as loans, mortgages, and leases Outsourcing: The practice of contracting with another entity to perform services that might otherwise be conducted in-house Public Key Infrastructure (PKI): Policies, processes, and technologies used to verify, enroll and certify users of a security application A PKI uses public key cryptography and key certification practices to secure communications Screen Scraping: A process used by information aggregators to gather information from a customer’s website, whereby the aggregator accesses the target site by logging in as the customer, electronically reads and copies selected information from the displayed webpage(s), then redisplays the information on the aggregator’s site The process is analogous to “scraping” the information off the computer screen Service Charge: A charge assessed by a depository institution for processing transactions and maintaining accounts Smart Cards: A card with an embedded computer chip on which information can be stored and processed A smart card may act as a debit card, credit card, access card or for claiming services provided by the state Copyright © 2009, IGI Global Copying or distributing in print or electronic forms without written permission of IGI Global is prohibited 294 Glossary Virtual Mall: An Internet website offering products and services from multiple vendors or suppliers Wireless Application Protocol (WAP): A data transmission standard to deliver Wireless Mark-up language (WML) content on mobile devices Website: The service of providing ongoing support and monitoring of an Internet-addressable computer that stores web pages and processes transactions initiated over the Internet Copyright © 2009, IGI Global Copying or distributing in print or electronic forms without written permission of IGI Global is prohibited About the Author 295 About the Author Mamood Shah is regional director, Institute of International Business (IIB) & SL at the Lancashire Business School Previously he has held academic posts at Cranfield University and the University of Hertfordshire, both in the United Kingdom He has also acted as a consultant to several UK and International banks on e-banking management related issues He received a PhD in e-banking from Brunel University, a MRes in Innovative Manufacturing from Cranfield University and a BSc (Hons) in Information Systems from University of Bedfordshire, all in the United Kingdom He has published papers in several high quality journals such as the European Journal of Information Systems and the International Journal of Information Management His other research interests include mobile government, online security and technology alignment Steve Clarke received a BSc in economics from The University of Kingston Upon Hull, an MBA from the Putteridge Bury Management Centre, The University of Luton, and a PhD in human centered approaches to information systems development from Brunel University – all in the United Kingdom He is professor of Information Systems in the University of Hull Business School Steve has extensive experience in management systems and information systems consultancy and research, focusing primarily on the identification and satisfaction of user needs and issues connected with knowledge management His research interests include: social theory and information systems practice; strategic planning; and the impact of user involvement in the development of management systems Major current research is focused on approaches informed by critical social theory Copyright © 2009, IGI Global Copying or distributing in print or electronic forms without written permission of IGI Global is prohibited 296 Index Index A C accounts aggregation 23,  260,  261 achieving competitive advantage 258 adoption 22,  24,  27,  28,  29 adoption/acceptance issues 121 alignment perspective 236 alignment problem 232 ATM 11,  12,  13,  16,  22 automated teller machines (ATMs) 10,  22 change management 62,  63,  67,  275 change management issues 122 channel integration 65,  274 competitive advantage 244,  245,  248,  254 complementarist framework 216 consumer behaviour 264 corporate strategy 230 cost/benefit analysis 132 critical pluralism 219,  220,  222 critical social theory (CSoT) 190,  194,  203,  207,  210,  212,  222,  224 critical success factors (CSFs) 132 critical systems practice 219 critical systems thinking 207,  213,  214,  215,  220,  227 critical systems thinking (CST) 116 CRM 30,  41,  42,  43,  50,  51,  54,  56,  68,  69,  267,  270 CSFs 132,  133,  135,  145,  164 CSoT 212 CST 116,  117,  118,  213 customer relationship management 67 customer relationship management systems (CRM) 41 customer service 65,  83 customer trust 71 B backend systems 38 Bank A, case study 134 Bank B, case study 142 banking industry, factors driving change 14 benefits of e-banking 3,  BPM 268 BPR 115,  117 “Bricks & Mortar” mixed business model 283 broker based services 20 business domain 239 business process management tools (BPM) 268 business process re-engineering (BPR) 115 Copyright © 2009, IGI Global Copying or distributing in print or electronic forms without written permission of IGI Global is prohibited Index 297 D H data warehousing 40,  51 delivery of retail banking services 9–17 DeLone and McLean model 170 demanding customers 15 deregulation 15 digital economy diversity management 219,  226 hard systems thinking (HST) 116 HCI 34,  53 high value customers, attracting 260 HRM 250 HST 116,  117 human activity (micro-social) systems 191 human-centered methods 89 human computer interface (HCI) 34 human involvement 86,  87 human involvement and e-banking 86–102 human issues managing 184 human relations model 191 human resources (HR) 282 human resources management 72 E e-banking, barriers 264 e-banking benefits 259 e-banking, defined e-banking evolution e-banking future 25 e-banking is a hygiene factor 257 e-banking management 1–8 e-banking management, problematic issues 103–129 e-banking overview 18 e-banking project management 167–189 e-banking project, typical steps 179 e-banking, strategy development 229–254 e-banking technologies 30–55 e-channels specific marketing 61 e-commerce to e-banking 21 economic climate change 15 EDI 18,  19,  30 electronic data interchange (EDI) 18,  30 electronic services delivery, models 18 e-marketing 5,  7,  263 epistemology 198,  205,  206,  208,  225 ethical issues 123 external environmental audit 240 F fear of competition 265 Financial Services Authority (FSA) 112 flexibility in organizations 66 FSA 112,  113 G GIROMAT 130 26 I ICT 12,  13,  14 ICT role in banking 12 implementing e-banking, reasons 256 information needs analysis 232,  233,  252 information systems as social systems 90 information systems domain 240 information systems strategic management (ISSM) 252 innovation and sustainable growth 159 innovation culture promotion 276 interactive television (iTV) 31 internal adoption, managing 67 internal communications management 150 internal environmental audit 240 Internet specific marketing 147 ISSM 252,  253 K Kant and knowledge 201 Kantian critical philosophy 200 KCI 221 key indicator system 130,  131 KMS 41 knowledge constitutive interests (KCI) 221 knowledge management for e-banking 190–228 Copyright © 2009, IGI Global Copying or distributing in print or electronic forms without written permission of IGI Global is prohibited 298 Index knowledge management (KM) 190,  192,  193,  194,  195,  196,  197,  203,  204,  205,  207,  208,  214,  222,  224,  225,  226,  228 knowledge management, roots 196 knowledge management systems (KMS) 41 R L regulations management 79 retail banking, history 10 retail banking services, delivery 9–17 retail banking, structure 11 return-on-investment (ROI) 74, 266 robust environment 279 ROI 74 London Ambulance Service 89,  90 S M Salem Five Bank, case study 155 scientific management 191 security 109 security problems 57 Seddon model 171 services oriented architecture (SOA) 43 short message service (SMS) 35 SMS 33,  35,  37 SOA 43,  44,  45,  46,  47,  51,  52,  53,  54,  268,  287,  288 social issues 270 social systems 90 social systems philosophy 190 social systems theory 211,  226 social theory 207,  208,  212,  226 social theory, paradigm problem 208 soft systems thinking (SST) 116 SOSM 215,  216,  217,  218,  219,  221 SST 116,  117,  118 strategic action 238 strategic alignment 232,  254 strategic planning 230 strategy development for e-banking 229–254 strategy development tools 232 strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis 131 success criteria, setting 169 SWOT 130,  131,  165 SWOT analysis 130,  131,  165 systems development life cycle 87,  88 systems thinking 190,  192,  213,  226,  227,  228 systems thinking for e-banking 190–228 management of change (MOC) 116 management problems 106 managerial view of e-banking 56–85 managing customer relationships 67 Microsoft project 181 middleware 43 mobile banking 33,  256,  269,  283 mobile banking technologies 33 MOC 116 O OASIG 89,  101 organisational aspects of information technology (OASIG) 89 organizational maze 63 outsourcing 107,  108,  109,  127 outsourcing problems 107 overview of e-banking 18–29 P PayPen 26 personal relationship 114 phishing for bank customers 112 Porter’s three generic strategies 244 pragmatic pluralism 220 PRINCE2 181,  188 project management 167,  168 project management issues 271 project management methodology/tools 180 project management, systems approach 182 project planning 168 Copyright © 2009, IGI Global Copying or distributing in print or electronic forms without written permission of IGI Global is prohibited Index 299 T U technical issues in e-banking 267 technology-based approach 88 technology projects failure, reasons 174 technology related problems 104 tools for managing e-banking 269 total quality management (TQM) 115 total systems intervention (TSI) 216,  217 TQM 115,  117 trust 118,  119,  121,  127 “trust relationships”, reinforce 277 TSI 216,  217,  218,  219,  220,  221,  226 UBS Pay 25 universal product offerings 279 W WAP 31,  33,  36,  267,  269 WebCalculator 26 website development issues 47 WIG 33,  269 Wipro 162,  163,  166 wireless application protocol (WAP) 31 Wireless Internet Gateway (WIG) 33 Copyright © 2009, IGI Global Copying or distributing in print or electronic forms without written permission of IGI Global is prohibited [...]... the general model of e- commerce to set the scene for subsequent sections, including a brief overview of how e- banking evolved and where it is heading in near future Models for Electronic Services Delivery E- commerce is about buying and selling information, products and services via computer networks such as the Internet and Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) Ebanking is one form of e- commerce The term... networks, telephone banking or Automated Teller Machines (ATMs) Therefore, it brings up unique types of challenges and requires innovative solutions Many banks and other organizations have already implemented or are planning to implement e- banking because of the numerous potential benefits associated with it Some of these major benefits are briefly described below Choice and Convenience for Customers... have established an Internet presence with various objectives Some banks are there because their competitors have done it Others prefer a ‘wait and see’ practice Some are using it as a banking channel being part of their distribution /delivery management E- banking largely came into being as a result of technological developments in the field of computing and communications but there have been a number... anywhere as long as telephones were available In the mid eighties, online banking arrived In its early form ‘online banking services’ requiring a computer, modem and software provided by the financial services vendors Generally, these services failed to get widespread acceptance due to high call costs and unfriendly system interfaces, and were discontinued by most providers With the arrival and widespread... ‘digital economy’, the balance of power seems to be shifting to the customers Customers are increasingly demanding more value, with goods customised to their exact needs, at less cost, and as quickly as possible To meet these demands, businesses need to develop innovative ways of creating value which often require different enterprise architectures, different IT infrastructures and different way of... covers some of the sectors, which have considerably changed as a result of the emergence of e- commerce, and helps our understanding of e- banking from these different perspectives Travel and Tourism Sector The Internet is an ideal place to plan, explore and arrange almost any trip People can make potential savings by buying on the Internet, eliminating travel agents and buying directly from the providers... than replacing branches or call centres benefited most That early experience showed that even the most keen e- banking customers also wanted the convenience of branches and phone banking This led to an argument that e- banking just adds another layer of complexity and unjustifiable costs The growth of phishing’, where fraudsters use spam e- mails and bogus websites to encourage people to reveal their account... account details, together with other security concerns, were also used to argue against the very existence of e- banking Nevertheless, in spite of some scepticism, given the real and promised benefits of the e- banking it continues to grow rapidly in most parts of the developed world In developing countries the picture has been less clear In China, for example, lower use of credit cards and a less sophisticated... They highlight the differences between the physical market place and the virtual market place, which they describe as an information-defined arena In the context of e- banking, electronic delivery of services means a customer conducting transactions using online electronic channels such as the Internet Many banks and other organizations are eager to use this channel to deliver their services because... their home pages There are sites where one can assess market wages rate by entering skills sets Similarly, it is possible to seek employment anywhere in the world as jobs are advertised on the Internet Many recruitment agencies such as www.hays.com use the Internet as their main communication channel, both with employers and job-seekers The Property Market One of the booming uses of the Internet is that
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