Hoàn thiện kế toán chi phí, doanh thu, kết quả kinh doanh trong các doanh nghiệp sản xuất thép thuộc tổng công ty thép việt nam LATS đại học kinh tế quốc dân

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Bộ GIáO DụC Và ĐàO TạO Trờng đại học kinh tế quốc dân đỗ thị hồng hạnh Hoàn thiện kế toán chi phí, doanh thu, kết kinh doanh doanh nghiệp sản xuất thép thuộc tổng công ty thép việt nam Hà Nội 2015 Bộ GIáO DụC Và ĐàO TạO Trờng đại học kinh tế quốc dân đỗ thị hồng hạnh Hoàn thiện kế toán chi phí, doanh thu, kết kinh doanh doanh nghiệp sản xuất thép thuộc tổng công ty thép việt nam Chuyên ngành: kế toán (kế toán, kiểm toán phân tích) Mã số: 62340301 Ngời hớng dẫn khoa học: GS.TS ng Th Loan PGS.TS inh Th Mai Hà Nội 2015 iii LICAMOAN TụixincamoanLunỏnnylcụngtrỡnhcariờngtụi.SliusdngtrongLunỏnl trungthc.NhngktqucaLunỏnchatngccụngbtrongbtccụngtrỡnhnokh ỏc TỏcgicaLunỏn Th Hng Hnh iv LICMN Tỏc gi xin trõn trng cm n th lónh o trng i hc Kinh t Quc dõn, th lónh o v cỏc thy cụ giỏo ca Vin k toỏn kim toỏn, th lónh o v cỏn b Vin o to sau i hc ca trng Tỏc gi c bit gi li cm n sõu sc nht n cụ giỏo GS.TS ng Th Loan, cụ giỏo PGS.TS inh Th Mai ó tn tỡnh hng dn ch bo v ng viờn tỏc gi quỏ trỡnh nghiờn cu v hon thnh Lun ỏn Tỏc gi xin trõn trng cm n th lónh o v cỏn b ca Tng cụng ty thộp Vit Nam v cỏc n v thnh viờn ó nhit tỡnh tr li phng vn, cng nh tr li cỏc phiu iu tra v cung cp cỏc thụng tin b ớch giỳp tỏc gi hon thnh lun ỏn Tỏc gi xin cm n th lónh o ca Khoa ngoi ng - ni tỏc gi ang cụng tỏc, ó to iu kin tụi hon thnh lun ỏn ny Tỏc gi cng xin cm n bn bố, ng nghip ó ng viờn, chia s vi tỏc gi quỏ trỡnh thc hin v hon thnh lun ỏn Cui cựng, Tỏc gi mun by t cm n ti B, M, Chng, Con, Anh, Ch, Em ó giỳp Tỏc gi sut quỏ trỡnh nghiờn cu v hon thnh Lun ỏn Tỏc gi lun ỏn Th Hng Hnh v MC LC TRANG PH BèA ii LI CAM OAN iii LI CM N .iv MC LC v DANH MC CH VIT TT vi CHNG1:TNG QUAN V TI NGHIấN CU .1 1.1 Tớnh cp thit ca lun ỏn 1.2 Mc tiờu nghiờn cu 1.3 Cõu hi nghiờn cu .3 1.4 i tng v phm vi nghiờn cu 1.5 Phng phỏp nghiờn cu lun ỏn 1.5.1Phng phỏp lun 1.5.2H thng phng phỏp 1.5.3Phng phỏp nghiờn cu 1.5.4Quy trỡnh nghiờn cu 1.6 Tng quan v ti nghiờn cu 1.7 B cc ca lun ỏn .11 1.8 Nhng úng gúp mi ca lun ỏn .11 CHNG 2: C S Lí LUN V K TON CHI PH, DOANH THU, KT QU KINH DOANH TRONG CC DOANH NGHIP SN XUT 13 2.1 Bn cht, vai trũ v yờu cu ca k toỏn CP, DT, KQKD cỏc DNSX 13 2.1.1 Bn cht chi phớ, doanh thu, kt qu kinh doanh cỏc doanh nghip SX 13 2.1.2 Vai trũ ca k toỏn chi phớ, doanh thu, KQKD cỏc doanh nghip sn xut .28 2.1.3 Yờu cu ca k toỏn chi phớ, doanh thu, KQKD cỏc doanh nghip sn xut 29 2.2 K toỏn chi phớ, doanh thu, kt qu kinh doanh cỏc doanh nghip sn xut di gúc k toỏn ti chớnh 30 2.2.1K toỏn chi phớ cỏc doanh nghip sn xut .30 2.2.2K toỏn doanh thu cỏc doanh nghip sn xut 37 2.2.3K toỏn kt qu kinh doanh cỏc doanh nghip sn xut 39 2.3K toỏn chi phớ, doanh thu, kt qu kinh doanh cỏc doanh nghip sn xut di gúc k toỏn qun tr 40 vi 2.3.1 Xõy dng nh mc v lp d toỏn CP, DT, KQKD cỏc doanh nghip SX 40 2.3.2 Thu thp thụng tin v chi phớ, doanh thu, KQKD cỏc doanh nghip sn xut 45 2.3.3 Phõn tớch thụng tin v CP, DT, KQKD phc v cho vic quyt nh ti cỏc DNSX 51 2.4Chun mc k toỏn quc t v kinh nghim cỏc nc v k toỏn chi phớ, doanh thu, kt qu kinh doanh v bi hc rỳt cho Vit Nam 54 2.4.1 Chun mc k toỏn quc v CP, DT, KQKD hot ng kinh doanh ca DN 54 2.4.2 Kinh nghim ca mt s nc trờn th gii v k toỏn CP, DT, KQKD 57 2.4.3 Bi hc kinh nghim cho cỏc doanh nghip Vit Nam v k toỏn chi phớ, doanh thu, kt qu kinh doanh cỏc doanh nghip sn xut 63 KT LUN CHNG 64 CHNG 3: THC TRNG K TON CHI PH, DOANH THU, KT QUKINH DOANH TRONG CC CễNG TY SN XUT THẫP THUCTNG CễNG TY THẫP VIT NAM 65 3.1 Gii thiu tng quan v Tng cụng ty thộp Vit Nam (VNSTEEL) 65 3.2 c im hot ng kinh doanh, hot ng qun lý, t chc cụng tỏc k toỏn ti cỏc Cụng ty sn xut thộp thuc Tng cụng thộp Vit Nam 69 3.2.1 c im hot ng kinh doanh ca cỏc Cty SX thộp thuc TCT Thộp Vit Nam 69 3.2.2 c im hot ng qun lý ti cỏc Cty sn xut thộp thuc TCT thộp Vit Nam 72 3.2.3c im t chc cụng tỏc k toỏn ca cỏc Cty SX thộp thuc TCT thộp Vit Nam 75 3.3 Thc trng k toỏn ti chớnh chi phớ, doanh thu, kt qu kinh doanh ti cỏc cụng ty sn xut thộp thuc Tng cụng ty Thộp Vit Nam 76 3.3.1 Thc trng k toỏn chi phớ ti cỏc cụng ty sn xut thộp thuc TCT thộp Vit Nam 76 3.3.2Thc trng k toỏn doanh thu ti cỏc Cty sn xut thộp thuc TCT thộp Vit Nam 98 3.3.3 Thc trng k toỏn KQKD ti cỏc Cty sn xut thộp thuc TCT thộp Vit Nam 107 3.4 Thc trng k toỏn qun tr chi phớ, doanh thu, kt qu kinh doanh ti cỏc Cụng ty sn xut thộp thuc Tng cụng ty Thộp Vit Nam 110 3.4.1 Xõy dng nh mc, d toỏn chi phớ, doanh thu, kt qu kinh doanh ti cỏc Cụng ty sn xut thộp thuc Tng cụng ty thộp Vit Nam 111 3.4.2 Bỏo cỏo k toỏn qun tr v chi phớ, doanh thu, kt qu kinh doanh ti cỏc Cụng ty sn xut thộp thuc Tng cụng ty thộp Vit Nam 112 3.4.3 Phõn tớch cỏc thụng tin chi phớ, doanh thu, kt qu kinh doanh phc v yờu cu qun tr ti cỏc Cụng ty sn xut thộp thuc Tng cụng ty thộp Vit Nam 113 vii 3.5 ỏnh giỏ chung v thc trng k toỏn chi phớ, doanh thu, kt qu kinh doanh ti cỏc Cụng ty sn xut thộp thuc Tng cụng ty Thộp Vit Nam 114 3.5.1 Nhng kt qu ó t c 114 3.5.2 Mt s nhng tn ti c bn .115 3.5.3 Nguyờn nhõn ca nhng hn ch, tn ti 119 KT LUN CHNG 120 CHNG 4: PHP HON THIN K TON CHI PH, DOANH THU, KT QA KINH DOANH TRONG CC CễNG TY SN XUT THẫP THUC TNG CễNG TY THẫP VIT NAM 121 4.1 Mt s nh hng chớnh phỏt trin ngnh thộp ca VN n nm 2020121 4.1.1 Quan im phỏt trin .121 4.1.2 nh hng phỏt trin 122 4.1.3 Mc tiờu phỏt trin 123 4.2 Yờu cu c bn ca vic hon thin k toỏn chi phớ, doanh thu, kt qu kinh doanh ti cỏc Cụng ty sn xut thộp thuc Tng cụng ty thộp Vit Nam .123 4.3 Cỏc gii phỏp hon thin k toỏn chi phớ, doanh thu, kt qu kinh doanh ti cỏc Cụng ty sn xut thộp thuc Tng cụng ty thộp Vit Nam 125 4.3.1 Hon thin k toỏn chi phớ, doanh thu, kt qu kinh doanh ti cỏc Cụng ty sn xut thộp thuc Tng cụng ty thộp Vit Nam di gúc k toỏn ti chớnh 125 4.3.2 Hon thin k toỏn chi phớ, doanh thu v kt qu kinh doanh ti cỏc Cụng ty sn xut thộp thuc Tng cụng ty thộp Vit Nam di gúc k toỏn qun tr 139 4.4 iu kin thc hin cỏc gii phỏp hon thin k toỏn chi phớ, doanh thu, kt qu kinh doanh ti cỏc Cụng ty sn xut thộp thuc Tng cụng ty thộp Vit Nam 154 4.4.1 iu kin v phớa nh nc v cỏc c quan chc nng 154 4.4.2iu kin i vi Tng cụng ty v cỏc n v thnh viờn 155 KT LUN CHNG 157 KT LUN .158 DANHMCCễNGTRèNHNGHIấNCUCATCGI vii DANH MCTILIUTHAM KHO viii DANH MC PHLC ix vi DANH MC CH VIT TT - BH &CCDV Bỏn hng v cung cp dch v - BH Bỏn hng - BCTC Bỏo cỏo ti chớnh - BP Bin phớ - CP, DT, KQHKD Chi phớ, doanh thu, kt qu hot ng kinh doanh - CP, DT, KQKD Chi phớ, doanh thu, kt qu kinh doanh - CTCP Cụng ty c phn - Cty Cụng ty - CPNVLTT Chi phớ nguyờn vt liu trc tip - CPNCTT Chi phớ nhõn cụng trc tip - CPSXC Chi phớ sn xut chung - CP Chi phớ - DN Doanh nghip - DNSX Doanh nghip sn xut - DT Doanh thu - M nh mc - P nh phớ - HTC Hot ng ti chớnh - HKD Hot ng kinh doanh - KQHKD Kt qu hot ng kinh doanh - KTQT K toỏn qun tr - KTTC K toỏn ti chớnh - NC Nhõn cụng - NVLTT Nguyờn vt liu trc tip - NVL Nguyờn vt liu - PP Phng phỏp - PL Phõn loi vii - PPKKTX Phng phỏp kờ khai thng xuyờn - PPKKK Phng phỏp kim kờ nh k - PNK Phiu nhp kho - PXK Phiu xut kho - QLDN Qun lý doanh nghip - SX Sn xut - SXKD Sn xut kinh doanh - TCT Tng cụng ty - TSC Ti sn c nh - XKQKD Xỏc nh kt qu kinh doanh CHNG TNG QUAN V TI NGHIấN CU 1.1 Tớnh cp thit ca lun ỏn Vai trũ v tm quan trng ca ngnh cụng nghip thộp i vi s phỏt trin kinh t - xó hi ca t nc ó c ng v Nh nc sm nhn thc rừ v ht sc quan tõm Ngay t nhng nm 1960, t nc cũn rt khú khn, ng v Nh nc ó dn sc xõy dng Khu liờn hp Gang thộp Thỏi Nguyờn - chic nụi u tiờn ca ngnh thộp Vit Nam, to tin phỏt trin cụng nghip thộp Vit Nam Tuy vy, nhng iu kin khc nghit ca nhng nm thỏng chin tranh, ngnh thộp Vit Nam ó khụng cú iu kin phỏt trin c nh mong mun Bc vo thi k i mi xõy dng t nc, ng v Nh nc cng ó cú ó cú nhng ch o phỏt trin ngnh cụng nghip thộp Vit Nam L mt quc gia cú nn kinh t ang phỏt trin, Vit Nam ó v ang tng bc tin vo hi nhp nn kinh t ton cu Hi nhp kinh t th gii l iu kin thun li v quan trng cho nn kinh t nc ta phỏt trin, nhng bờn cnh ú nn kinh t th trng vi nhng quy lut khc nghit ca nú cng cú nhng nh hng rt ln n s tn ti v phỏt trin ca cỏc DN Vit Nam Cỏc DNSX thộp ti Vit Nam cng khụng nm ngoi nhng thỏch thc ú Ngnh thộp Vit Nam ó cú nhiu c gng khai thỏc, ci to v m rng nhng c s SX c v liờn doanh vi nc ngoi, tng nng lc SX Tuy nhiờn, ngnh thộp Vit Nam cũn bc l mt s tn ti, yu kộm S yu kộm ny th hin qua cỏc mt sau: Nng lc SX phụi thộp quỏ nh bộ; C cu mt hng SX hp, n iu (cú mt s sn phm cung vt xa so vi cu, nhng cú nhiu sn phm phi nhp khu); Trang thit b cú qui mụ nh, lc hu, trỡnh cụng ngh v mc t ng húa thp; Chi phớ SX ln, nng sut lao ng thp, mc tiờu hao nguyờn liu, nng lng cao, cht lng sn phm cha n nh iu ú dn ti kh nng cnh tranh thp, kh nng xut khu hn ch, hiu qu SXKD cha cao, cũn phi da vo s bo h ca Nh nc 21 sn phm hon thnh khụng phn ỏnh chớnh xỏc thụng tin v giỏ thnh sn phm cho cỏc nh qun tr Cỏc Cty cn thc hin ỳng quy nh v vic phõn b chi phớ SXC * Hon thin vic phõn loi doanh thu phc v cho yờu cu qun tr DN Cỏch phõn loi doanh thu theo tỡnh hỡnh kinh doanh hin m cỏc Cty ang ỏp dng ch ỏp ng c nhu cu ca KTTC, phc v cho nhu cu thụng tin cho cho cỏc nh qun tr, cỏcCty cng nờn tin hnh phõn loi doanh thu ca n vtheo mi quan h vi im hũa vn.Vi cỏch PL ny giỳp cỏc Cty xỏc nh c im hũa hay im an ton cho tng phng ỏn kinh doanh, trờn c s ú cỏc Cty a phng ỏn kinh doanh ti u nht cho Cty ca mỡnh 4.3.2.3 Hon thin lp nh mc, d toỏn CP, DT, KQKD ti cỏc Cụng ty sn xut thộp thuc Tng cụng ty thộp Vit Nam Cụng tỏc lp nh mc, d toỏn CP, DT, KQKD ti cỏc CtySX thộpcha y v ng b Thc t cụng vic ny mi ch dng li vic lp K hoch SXKD cho mts hot ng ca Cty nh: Bng ch tiờu k thut, k hoch SX sn phm, k hoch vt t, k hoch giỏ thnh, k hoch tiờu th.Cụng tỏc xõy dng, qun lý v s dng k hoch SXKD ch ỏp ng c yờu cu ca cụng tỏc KTTC, cha ỏp ng c yờu cu qun tr DN.Vỡ vy, thc hin c cụng tỏc KTQT, ỏp ng nhu cu thụng tin cho cỏc nh qun lý Cỏc Cty cn thit phi iu chnh v lp b sung nh mcv d toỏn CP, DT, KQKD cho cỏc k HKD + V nh mc chi phớ: cn xõy dng b sungnh mc chi phớ NCTT, nh mc chi phớ chi phớ SXC: + V d toỏn sn xut:Hin nay, ti cỏc CtySX thộp mt s k hoch SX cú th coi nh l d toỏn: k hoch tiờu th sn phm, k hoch SX sn phm, k hoch nhu cu vt t ch yu Tuy nhiờn, cỏc Cty cn xõy dng v b sung thờm cỏc ch tiờu cho cỏc k hoch ny thỡ s m boỏp ng c y nhu cu thụng tin cho cỏc nh qun tr Ngoi ra, cỏc Cty cn lp b sung thờm cỏc d toỏn sau:D toỏn chi phớ NCTT, d toỏn chi phớ SXC, d toỏn chi phớ bỏn hng, d toỏn chi phớ QLDN, d toỏn kt qu kinh doanh 4.3.2.4 Hon thin vicphõn tớch thụng tin v chi phớ, doanh thu, kt qu kinh doanh phc v cho vic quyt nh ti cỏc Cụng ty SX thộp thuc Tng cụng ty thộp Vit Nam Cỏc CtySX thộp thuc TCT thộp Vit cnphi tin hnh phõn tớch, ỏnh giỏ tỡnh hỡnh thc hin cỏc d toỏn, cỏc nh mc CP, DT, KQKD sau mi k SXKD t ú, giỳp cho cỏc nh qun lý ca Cty cú y thụng tin cho vic quyt nh cho cỏc phng phỏp kinh doanh tip theo - Phõn tớch bin ng chi phớ: Bao gm vic phõn tớch bin ng v khon mc chi phớ NVLTT, phõn tớch bin ng khon mc chi phớ NCTT, Phõn tớch bin ng khon mc chi phớ SXC Vic phõn tớch bin ng chi phớ s giỳp cỏc CtySX thộp, cú th xỏc nh c kh nng tim tng, nguyờn nhõn ch quan khỏch quan tỏc ng n s tng gim chi phớ thc t so vi k hoch t trc ú T ú, giỳp nh qun lý cú nhng gii phỏp ỳng n v kp thi chn chnh hoc tip tc phỏt huy nhng bin ng ú theo hng cú li cho Cty 22 - Phõn tớch bin ng doanh thu: Vic phõn tớch doanh thu s cho phộp cỏcCtySX thộp cú th so sỏnh, ỏnh giỏ tỡnh hỡnh thc hin k hoch ca cỏc ch tiờu theo cỏc khon thi gian ng thi tỡm nguyờn nhõn ca vic tng, gim doanh thu theo k hoch v thc hin T ú cú cỏc gii phỏp ỳng n, kp thi nhm nõng cao doanh thu theo tng hot ng -Phõn tớch h thng bỏo cỏo qun tr ca Cụng ty: bit c tỡnh hỡnh thc hin d toỏn tiờu th, SX, bỏn hng k so vi k hoch t Cỏc CtySX thộp phi tin hnh ỏnh giỏ chung tỡnh hỡnh thc hin k hoch, giỳp cho nh qun tr nm c tỡnh hỡnh tng, gim gia k hoch v thc hin k c v s tuyt i v s tng i + Phõn tớch bỏo cỏo kt qu hot ng SXKD:Vic phõn tớch bỏo cỏo kt qu HKD s cho phộp cỏc CtySX thộp ỏnh giỏ c cỏc mt hot ng ca cỏc Cty trờn cỏc ch tiờu doanh thu, chi phớ, li nhun Cú th so sỏnh bng s tng i hoc s tuyt i thy c mc bin ng ca li nhun; ng thi cng cú th ỏnh giỏ thy c c cu lói ca cỏcCty bng cỏch so sỏnh t trng lói ca tng hot ng tng lói qua cỏc nm thy c ngun li nhun chớnh ca cỏc CtySX thộp hot ng no mang li + Phõn tớch bỏo cỏo kt qu hot ng kinh doanh b phn:Vic phõn tớch bỏo cỏo kt qu HKD b phn qun trs giỳp cỏc CtySX thộp ỏnh giỏ c mc úng gúp li nhun ca tng b phn i vi ton Cty + Phõn tớch bỏo cỏo s dng lao ng:Tựy theo mc ớch phõn tớch ca cỏc cp qun tr khỏc ni b cỏc Cty, m cỏc CtySX thộp cú th tin hnh phõn tớch bỏo cỏo s dng lao ng di nhiu gúc khỏc Chng hn: phõn tớch bỏo cỏo nng sut lao ng theo gi cụng, ngy cụng, hoc theo thỏng, quý, nm;hoc phõn tớch bỏo cỏo lao ng tớnh theo hin vt, giỏ tr hoc thi gian +Phõn tớch bỏo cỏo bỏn hng: õy l mt bỏo cỏo thng c cỏc nh qun lý quan tõm c bit iu kin hng ng nh hin Vic phõn tớch bỏo cỏo bỏn hng giỳp cỏc nh qun tr ca cỏc CtySX thộp thy c cỏc nguyờn nhõn ch quan, khỏch quan, cỏc kh nng tim tng T ú, cỏc Cty s cú nhng gii phỏp y nhanh tin tiờu th, thu hi nhanh, thỳc y SX phỏt trin 4.4 iu kin thc hin cỏc gii phỏp hon thin k toỏn chi phớ, doanh thu, kt qu kinh doanh ti cỏc Cụng ty sn xut thộp thuc Tng cụng ty thộp Vit Nam 4.4.1 iu kin v phớa nh nc v cỏc c quan chc nng * V phớa cỏc c quan nh nc - Nh nc cn hon thin c ch ti chớnh, h thng phỏp lut, hon thin ch k toỏn hin hnh phự hp vi iu kin nn kinh t th trng Vit Nam v phự hp vi cỏc thụng l, chun mc k toỏn quc t Vn bn gia cỏc B, ngnh cn phi cú s nht quỏn v mt ni dung - Cn cú mt chớnh sỏch k toỏn phõn nh phm vi phn ỏnh ca KTTC v KTQT vi cỏc bn hng dn thc hin KTQT c ban hnh t phớa c quan Nh nc 23 - Cỏc c quan chc nng ca Nh nc cn cng quyt khụng cp phộp ngoi quy hoch Ngoi ra, cỏc c quan qun lý cn nghiờn cu, mnh dn xut cỏc c ch, chớnh sỏch h tr giỳp DN thộp vt qua khú khn: + Cỏc d ỏn thộp nm ngoi quy hoch v khụng thc hin cỏc th tc quy nh u t m Chớnh ph ó ban hnh, cn cú bin phỏp mnh thu hi giy phộp, quyt khụng "b sung vo quy hoch thộp" ó quỏ tha + Tụn trng cỏc quy nh m B Cụng thng ó ban hnh v quy mụ cụng sut u t v cỏc iu kin d ỏn thộp phỏt trin bn vng + Khuyn khớch u t SX cỏc sn phm ang phi nhp khu gim bt nhp siờu + éng thi, giỏm sỏt cht ch cỏc d ỏn u t FDI, dt khoỏt loi b nu ú ch l dng d ỏn chim t tỡm c hi chuyn nhng kim li + Nhng Cty thộp khụng cũn sc cnh tranh cụng ngh v thit b lc hu, tiờu hao nhiu nguyờn liu v nng lng, giỏ thnh cao s buc phi dng SX hoc bỏn li nh mỏy cho cỏc nh u t cú tim nng i mi cụng ngh, bo m SX hiu qu * V phớa cỏc c quan chc nng: - Hi k toỏn Vit Nam vi vai trũ l mt t chc ngh nghip nờn to iu kin h tr cỏc Cty vic t chc thc hin k toỏn qun tr; phỏt huy vai trũ ca mỡnh vic khuyn cỏo ngi SX v tiờu dựng thộp, s dng thộp ni cú cht lng cao; h tr phỏt trin v nghiờn cu v phỏt trin, o to ngun nhõn lc nõng cao sc cnh tranh 4.4.2 iu kin i vi Tng cụng ty v cỏc n v thnh viờn - TCT thộp v cỏc CtySX thộp thuc TCT thộp Vit Nam cn nhn thc rừ v tm quan trng ca h thng thụng tin k toỏn núi chung v h thng thụng tin k toỏn v CP, DT, KQKD ca DN núi riờng vic iu hnh HKD ca n v mỡnh - Bi dng nõng cao trỡnh ca nhõn viờn k toỏn ỏp ng yờu cu hon thin k toỏn CP, DT, KQKD ca Cty - Xõy dng h thng nh mc chi phớ chớnh xỏc v phự hp ỏp dng Cty nhm cung cp nhng d liu tin cy cho KTQT vic d bỏo v kim soỏt chi phớ - Nh qun lý cn nhn thc ỳng v vai trũ, chc nng ca KTQT qun lý Cty T ú, ch ng xõy dng mụ hỡnh t chc KTQT thớch hp vi Cty ca mỡnh - Cỏc CtySX thộp phi tin hnh tỏi c cu sc cnh tranh vi cỏc sn phm thộp trờn th gii trờn sõn nh i vi nhng Cty thộp dựng cụng ngh lc hu, tiờu hao nng lng quỏ ln v khụng cũn sc cnh tranh thỡ phi mnh dn ct b hoc bỏn li c s cho cỏc nh u t cú tim lc ti chớnh tin hnh nõng cp cụng ngh m bo SX cú hiu qu kinh t Ngoi ra, cỏc Cty cn mnh dn thc hin vic mua li, sỏp nhp (M&A) mt s CtySX khụng hiu qu ng thi, y mnh vic hp tỏc, liờn kt gia cỏc Cty vi nhau, to dng thnh nhng thng hiu mnh, chuyn hng u t SX cỏc chng loi thộp nc cha SX c 24 KT LUN CHUNG Vai trũ v tm quan trng ca ngnh cụng nghip thộp i vi s phỏt trin kinh t - xó hi ca t nc ó c ng v Nh nc sm nhn thc rừ v ht sc quan tõm L mt quc gia cú nn kinh t ang phỏt trin, Vit Nam ó v ang tng bc tin vo hi nhp nn kinh t ton cu Hi nhp kinh t th gii l iu kin thun li v quan trng cho nn kinh t nc ta phỏt trin, nhng bờn cnh ú nn kinh t th trng vi nhng quy lut khc nghit ca nú cng cú nhng nh hng rt ln n s tn ti v phỏt trin ca cỏc DN Vit Nam Cỏc DNSXthộp ti Vit Nam cng khụng nm ngoi nhng thỏch thc ú tn ti v phỏt trin mt cỏch bn vng cỏc DNSXthộp nhn thy cn thit phi cú s ci tin v mi mt, c bit l vic ci tin v hon thin cỏc cụng c qun lý kinh t Trong h thng cỏc cụng c QLDN, k toỏn l mt nhng cụng c qun lý hu hiu nht, giỳp cho cỏc nh qun tr DN cú c nhng thụng tin chớnh xỏc, trung thc v khỏch quan kp thi a cỏc phng ỏn kinh doanh hiu qu nht Thc t h thng k toỏn ca Vit Nam cũn nhiu im bt cp, cha hon ton phự hp vi thụng l, chun mc k toỏn quc t v cha thc s ỏp ng yờu cu qun lý ca DN S bt cp cụng tỏc k toỏn CP, DT, KQKD ó nh hng khụng nh n tỡnh trng ti chớnh ca cỏc DN, lm gim hiu qu ca h thng kim soỏt v ỏnh giỏ ca doanh nghip Nghiờn cu ti Hon thin k toỏn chi phớ, doanh thu, kt qu kinh doanh cỏc Cụng ty sn xut thộp thuc Tng cụng ty Thộp Vit Nam, nhm giỳp cỏc CtySX thộp thuc TCT thộp Vit Nam hon thin cụng tỏc k toỏn CP, DT, KQKD ỏp ng nhu cu hi nhp kinh t, nhm gúp phn giỳp cỏc Cty sn xut thộp phỏt trin bn vng nn kinh t th trng Trong phm vi nghiờn cu, lun ỏn ó thc hin mt s ni dung sau: Lun ỏn ó lm rừ c s lý lun v k toỏn CP, DT, KQKD cỏc DN SX Trờn c nghiờn cu chun mc k toỏn quc t v k toỏn CP, DT, KQKD v mụ hỡnh ca nc Phỏp, M Lun ỏn ó a mụ hỡnh k toỏn núi chung v k toỏn CP, DT, KQKD núi riờng nờn ỏp dng cho cỏc DNSX Vit Nam Thc hin iu tra, kho sỏt, nghiờn cu, phõn tớch thc trng k toỏn CP, DT, KQKD ti cỏc Cty SX thộp thuc TCT thộp Vit Nam Trờn c s ú, lun ỏn ó ch c nhng u im, hn ch - tn ti v nguyờn nhõn ca nhng tn ti ú Lun ỏn ó xut ni dung cỏc gii phỏp nhm hon thin cụng tỏc k toỏn CP, DT, KQKD di c gúc KTTC v KTQT iu kin thc hin cỏc gii phỏp ny Nhng gii phỏp ny u xut phỏt t thc tin nờn m bo tớnh khoa hc v kh thi Nhng gii phỏp ny khụng ch ỏp dng cho cỏc DNSXthộp thuc TCT thộp Vit Nam, m cũn cú th nghiờn cu ỏp dng cho cỏc DNSXthộp khỏc phm vi c nc CHAPTER OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH TOPIC 1.1 The significant of the dissertation The role and significance by steel industry to national socio-economic developments have long been receiving Vietnamese Party and Government awareness and concerns.As a developing country, Vietnam has been integrating gradually into the global economy.Global economic integration is an important and favourable condition for our economic development, but the market economy with its harsh conditions exerts tremendous influence over Vietnamese enterprises' survival and development In recent years, Vietnams steel industry has plunged into hard situations with enterprises full of hardship because of stagnant goods up to millions of tons and limited consumption market Most of Vietnams steel enterprises are encountering a big challenge of bankruptcy due to high amount of inventory, limited market for consumption and penetration by exported steel products.The steel factories in the country are faced with excess capacity; the capacity of steel used only is only 60- 70 %, and most of them produced moderately, some enterprises even announced suspensions in production In order to survive and develop sustainably, enterprises are now aware of the must for a breakthrough on a macro scale.In the system of enterprise management tools (EMT), accounting is one of the most effective, enabling the administrator to obtain accurate, authentic and objective information to timely make the most possible effective business plan.In the system of accounting sections, the accounting section of cost, revenue, earnings (C,R,E) is of importance The accounting information on C, R, Eare very helpful for enterprise administrators; the information quality of the accounting practice in C, R, E is considered to be one of the important criteria to ensure safety and possibility of victory to the business decisions In recent years, accounting systems in general, C, E, R accounting in particular have been gradually completed.In reality, however, there are many shortcomings which are not entirely consistent with the international accounting practices and standards and not really meet the requirements of enterprise management.The inadequacies in C, R, and E accounting significantly affected the financial status of the company, reducing the effectiveness of the control and evaluation of the company Given these above theoretical and practical needs, the dissertation conducts research the topic "Perfecting cost, revenue, and earnings accounting in the steel manufacturing enterprises under Vietnam Steel Corporation (VSC) "to contribute companies sustainable development of steel production in the market economy 1.2 Research questions The author has given the research question: how to improve the information quality of accounting C,R,E for manufacturing enterprises (ME) of steel of Vietnam Steel Corporation? 1.3 Objectives of the study Systematize theoretical issues in C,R, Eaccounting in manufacturing enterprises; study international accounting standards and countries experience in accounting for C, R, Eand draw lessons for Vietnam; research and analyse, and assessC, R, E accounting in the steel manufacturing enterprises of Vietnam Steel Corporation; propose solutions to complete C, R, E accountings in the Steel Manufacturing Enterprises of Vietnam Steel Corporation, serving for enterprise management and macro-levelstate management in integration and globalization context 1.4 Object and scope of the study Object of study of the paper is thetheoretical basis and practices in accounting of C, R, Ein ME - Scope of the study: The thesis surveys, studies C, R, E and sales operations and service provision (CO & SP); financial activities (FA) of the steel MEs of Vietnam Steel Corporation (excluding other activities) 1.5 Research Methodology 1.5.1 Methodology Conducting the research, the author has used methods of dialectical materialism, historical materialism of Marxism and Leninism to help reach research objectives 1.5.2 System of methods On the basis of dialectical materialism and historical materialism approaches, the author has used synthetically many different methods: investigation, analysis, systematizing; observing, note-taking; statisticallysynthetic and disaggregated; inductive, interpretation, comparative; evidential to research, analyze, evaluate, and present the issues pertaining to accounting C, R, E in MEs in general and in the Steel Manufacturing Company under Vietnam Steel Corporation in particular 1.5.3 Research methodology 1.5.3.1 Methods of collecting information - For primary data: To collect information for the study, the author uses the "Questionnaire" to interview the Chief Accountant of the Steel Manufacturing Company under Vietnam Steel Corporation;auditors in independent audit companies who have conducted audit tasks for the Steel Manufacturing Co., General Director, Director, Vice president of the Steel Manufacturing Company to collect data related to C, R, E accounting in steel MEs In addition, the authors also used methods of observation and note-taking to study system of books and facilities which serve C, R, E accounting steel Manufacturing Company of Vietnam Steel Corporation To collect more relevant data, the author performed unstructured interviews with a number of administrators in state-level management bodies for this activity - For secondary data: The author collected information through available sources: Statistical Yearbook, google sites, the financial statements (FS), the final report on the websites of steel MEs under Vietnam Steel Corporation, a number of audit organizations websites in Vietnam The papers also refers to the survey and analysis findings from other doctoral works onC, R, E accounting to summarize experiences and lessons in C, R, E accounting in Steel Manufacturing Enterprises under Vietnam Steel Corporation 1.5.3.2 Methods of data synthesis, analysis, and processing The data obtained from surveys, observations, interviews, records are collected and statistically disaggregated to be processed In addition, the author uses inductive, interpretative, comparative, and statistical methods to evaluate and analyze the accounting of C, R, E in steel Manufacturing Companies of Vietnam Steel Corporation; strengths, weaknesses, subjective and objective causes .in order that solutions can be made to improve accounting of C, R, E of the steel Manufacturing Companies 1.6 Overview of research In terms of economic integration, good governance of C, R, and E will contribute to enhancing competitiveness, ensure the safety and possibility of success to the corporate business decisions Therefore, many research works on C, R, and E in enterprises adopt the perspective of financial accounting (FA) and management accounting (MA) However, when regarded on the basis of field of operation, these studies are primarily conducted for research in such fields as services (tourism, transport, and hotel), some in manufacturing sector (ceramics, confectionery manufacturing, and foods) With regard to specialized areas, these studies mainly research the organization of accounting Besides, there are also studies of the steel companies; however, these studies have only been done in other fields of activity of the company (not active on FA No work has studied accounting in the field of heavy industry and steel industry in Vietnam- the core economic sectors of the country Given the fact that Vietnamese steel industry is in face of many difficulties and shortcomings, that the companies are at risk of bankruptcy, that many companies have to suspend or delay their production and the aim to find solutions to contribute to the development in Vietnams steel MEs stability and sustainability in the context of integration and globalization, the author has chosen the research topic Perfecting C, R, E accounting in steel manufacturing enterprises under Vietnam Steel Corporation " 1.7 Dissertation layout In addition to the abstract, lists of tables, charts and graphs, lists of references, appendices, the papers comprise4 chapters: Chapter 1: Overview of research Chapter 2: Literature review of cost, revenue, and earnings accounting in manufacturing enterprises Chapter3: The reality of cost, revenue, and earnings accounting in steel manufacturing enterprises under Vietnam Steel Corporation Chapter 4: Solutions for perfecting cost, revenue, and earnings accounting in steel manufacturing enterprises under Vietnam Steel Corporation 1.8 New contributions by the dissertation - This paper centers on a clarification for rationales of cost, revenue and earnings accounting in manufacturing enterprises - Based on the study of international accounting standards of C, R, E accounting and accounting models of France, the United States, the paper has shown that the model of accounting organization applied for MEs in Vietnam should be the combination of FA and MA on the same accounting system - The dissertation has given the existing problems in accounting C, R, E in steel Manufacturing Companies of Vietnam Steel Corporation; these problems lie in the identification and classification of C, R, E; accounting implementation for vouchers, accounts, ledger, accounting statements in C, R, E accounting in perspective of FA; building production norms and estimates, analyzinginformation to control and provide C, R, E information serving decision-makings on MA aspects The paper has also identified the subjective and objective causes for such draw inadequacies comefrom the State and the steel manufacturing companies - Then, given existing shortcomings and inadequacies, the paper proposes a number of solutions for improvement belonging to two perspectives In terms of FA, the dissertation proposes determining the content and scope of costs ; determining the content and scope of revenue; determining the time at which revenue is recognized; determining accounting methods for C, R, E In terms of MA, the dissertation proposes perfecting the organizational model as a mixture of MA and FA; building price norms and estimates; analyzing cost volatility to control costs and serve decision-making CHAPTER LITERATURE REVIEW OF COST, REVENUE, AND EARNINGS ACCOUNTING, IN MANUFACTURING ENTERPRISES 2.1 The nature, role and requirements of cost, revenue, and earnings accounting in the manufacturing enterprises 2.1.1 The nature of cost, revenue, and earnings in MEs 2.1.1.1 The nature and classification of costs in manufacturing enterprises - In terms of , the cost of(business and) production is the capital movement of the company in the business and productionprocess - Basing on production and businesscharacteristics, enterprises can choose the classification (C)of costs as follows: C of costs by the content and economicnature of costs; C ofcosts by expenses included in cost of products consumed; C of costs by relationships with earningsperformance period (E); C ofcosts by the chance of inducting costs into cost accounting objects Additionally, to fulfill the information requirements of management accounting, enterprises can classify cost according to the following ways: C of costs by the level of activity; C of by the need to use of cost in choosing a business strategy; C of cost based on the ability to managers control costs 2.1.1.2 The nature and classification of revenue in manufacturing enterprises - In essence, revenue is the total benefits arising from production and business activities (PBA) earned by enterprise during the accounting period - On the bas of PBA, enterprises can select from the following classifications of revenue: C of revenue by its relations with the system of business organization; C of revenuebygeographical area; C of revenueby business performance Additionally, to fulfill the information requirements of management accounting, enterprises canclassify revenue according to the following ways: C of revenue by its elationship with the breakeven point; C of revenue according to the method of payment for goods; C of revenue by selling methods 2.1.1.3 The nature and classification of earnings in MEs - Net profit from business operations ( BO), income or earnings, is the result of PBA in an accounting period,the difference between total revenue and total expenses of sales and service provision activities (S&SPA) and financial activities (F.A) in enterprises -To serve the managerial requirements, enterprises can classifyincome/ earnings according to the following manners: C of business performance by FA-based reflection ways; C of earnings by its relationships with the income statement; C of earnings by type of product or group of products; C of earnings by each working firm/ group/ team 2.1.2 The role of cost, revenue, and earnings accounting in MEs C, R, E accounting is one of enterprises important practices Through economic information about C, R, E of the company, the users ofsuch information will assess the level of business organizations, business efficiency, competitiveness and dominane over the market, as well as developmentpotential of enterprises 2.1.3 Requirements for cost, revenue, and earnings accounting in MEs It is important to determine properly, timely and accurately the amount ofC, R, and E; to manage C, R, and E for each activity, each business unit of the company; to organize and analyze information to serve scheduling C, R, and E and administrators decision-making 2.2 Cost, revenue, and earning accouting in manufacturing enterprises in perspective of financial accounting 2.2.1 Cost accounting in manufacturing enterprises * Accounting cost of direct materials To observe this expense, enterprise uses the account "Acc-621 - direct raw materials cost" On the "Notes to the financial statements" -sample B09-DN, the direct raw materials cost (DRMC) is presented in Subsection 33, Section VI * Accounting direct labor cost To observe and account the direct labor costs (DLC), enterprises use the account "Acc-622- direct labor cost" On the "Notes to the financial statements" sample B09- DN, Market DLC is presented in Subsection 33 of Section VI * Accounting general operation cost To observe the general operation cost (GOC), enterprises use the account "Acc627 -GOC" On the "Notes to the financial statements" sample B09-DN, GOC will be separatedinto different elements and recorded in suitable items in Sub-section 33, in Section VI * Accountingthe cost of goods sold(COGS) To observe the COGS account, enterprises use the account "Acc- 632-COGS" On the "Income Statement" sample B02-DN, cost of goods sold is presented in target (code 11) On the "Notes to the financial statements" ssample B09-DN, cost of goods sold will be reflected in subsection 28 of section VI - Additional information for items presented in income statement * Accounting the financial activities expenses To observe financial activities expenses, accountants use the account "Acc- 635financial activities expenses for synthesis and collection of these expenses On the "Income Statement" sample B02-DN, they are presented in target (code 22) On the "Notes to the financial statements" sample B09-DN, the financial activities expenses will be reflected in subsection 30 of section VI * Cost of selling expenses To observe the selling expenses, companies use the account "Acc-641 selling expenses' for collection and observation On the " Income Statement" sample B02DN, selling expenses are presented at target (code 24) On the "Notes to the financial statements" sample B09-DN, selling expenses will be separated into different elements and recordedin suitable items in subsection 33 of section VI * Accounting general & administration expenses To observe general & administration expenses, enterprises usethe account "Acc642 - general & administration expenses 'to collect, observe these expenses On the " Income Statement" sample B02-DN, general & administration expenses are presented in (code 25) On "Notes to the financial statements" sample B09-DN, it will be separated into different elements and recordedin suitable items in subsection 33 of section VI 2.2.2 Accounting sales in MEs * Accounting goods and service sales in MEs To observe and account goods and service sales, enterprises usethe account "Acc 511-sales and service provisions" On " Income Statement" sample B02-DN, rsales and service account is presented at: Target No (code 01), target (code 02), indicators of 3- (code 20); On the "Notes to the financial statements" sample B09DN, it is reflected in subsection 25, sub-section 26, subsection 27 of section VI * Accounting internal gross sales in manufacturing enterprises To observe and account internalgross sales, enterprises usethe account "Acc-512 internal grosssales. * Accountingfinancial activities income in manufacturing enterprises To reflect financial activities income, accountants use the account "Acc-515financial activities income" and other related accounts to reflect arisingtransactions, then account arising transactions related to financial activities income On the " Income Statement" sample B02-DN, financial activities income is presented at target (code 21); On the "Notes to the financial statements" sample B09-DN, it is reflected in subsection 29 of section VI 2.2.3 Accounting the evaluation of earnings in manufacturing enterprises To observe, reflect and determine earnings, enterprises use the account "Acc 911- evaluation of business results " On the " Income Statement" sample B02-DN, net income from business activities is presented in target 10 (code 30) 2.3 Cost, revenue, and earning accoutings in manufacturing enterprises in perspective of management accounting 2.3.1 Building norms and budgeting costs, revenues, earnings in manufacturing enterprises 2.3.1.1 Building norms of operating costs in the DNSX Cost budgeting has an important role for administrators Norms of expenses arethe basis for budgeting The system of standard norms must reflect the level of future effectiveness MEs need to build thefollowing norms of expenses for: DRMC, DLC, and GOC 2.3.1.2 Budgeting C, R, earnings in manufacturing enterprises Estimation is a detailed plan showing revenues and expenditures of the company in a given period These companies need to compile the following estimates: Estimates of product sales, DRMC, DLC and GOC estimates, estimates for cost of sales, cost estimates for GEM, and income estimates 2.3.2 Gathering information about costs, revenues, earnings in MEs 2.3.2.1 The requirement of management accounting information The accounting information given must ensure the following requirements: fairness, relevance, effectiveness, timeliness of accounting information; legality and no costliness in collecting accounting information 2.3.2.2 To collect accounting information to serve the decision making The information required by MA to organize and acquire is from past and future Such information may be collected for the first time for a particular purpose or previously used for other purposes (secondary information) 2.3.3 Analysis of information on cost, revenue, earnings to serve the decision makingin manufacturing enterprises The information in costs should be analyzed according to different criteria to help managers have a better overview of the different aspects of the indicator as a basis for management decisions In doing so, the managers gather past and futureinformation Basing on information collected and based on the requirements of EMs, managers make decisions necessary for information analysis such as content, methods and organization of the analysis 2.4 International Accounting Standards and the experience of countries in cost, revenue, and earnings accounting and lessons for Vietnam 2.4.1International Accounting Standards on cost, revenue, and earnings in business activities International Accounting Standardsrelated to costs include IAS 1, IAS 38, IAS 21, IAS 20, IAS 16; and related to revenue, IAS 18, IAS 11, and related to income/ earnings, IAS 08 2.4.2The experience of some countries in the world in accounting for C, R, E 2.4.2.1 Cost, revenue, and earning accountings according to US accounting model US accounting system is an open system , facilitating for businesses to promote the initiative and flexibility in management It gives more time for revenue recognition, meetswell the actual diversity of the economic transactions in revenue, and enables the proactive work in accounting However, the application of an open and very flexible accounting model is only suitable with countries whose have an effective legal system, intensive and extensive professional associations and organizations to meet managerial and social requirements 2.4.2.2 Cost, revenue, and earning accoutings according to French accounting model French accounting system is prescribed by the Government with specific and detailed regulations, so it is convenient for the inspection and control of economic activity in MEs The detailedness in each accounting practice creates consistency in the accounting of economic transactions arising As a result, the reported data can ensure comparability between periods and with other companies However, thesystem of accounting rules are too rigid and detailed; therefore, accounting certain economic transactions become more complex, unnecessary, limiting the autonomy ability of accounting 2.4.3Lessons for Vietnamese manufacturingenterprises in C, R, E accounting There are many models to build relationships between FA and MA in the accounting system of an enterprise However, for a country with growing economy as Vietnam, enterprises should follow the model combining FA and MA on the same accounting system because this model allows to inherit the content of existing FA and specific expressions in the current accounting system On the other hand, the existence of an accounting system will save costs in accounting, assuring the principles of saving and efficacy instead of the separate model that seems more costly CHAPTER COST, REVENUE, AND EARNINGS ACCOUNTING IN STEEL MANUFACTURING ENTERPISES UNDER VIETNAM STEEL CORPORATION 3.1 Overview of the Vietnam Steel Corporation (VNSTEEL) Full name: Vietnam Steel Corporation - JSC Abbreviations: VSC/ VNSTEEL, Head Office: 91 Lang Ha Street, Ba Dinh district, Hanoi In the first half of the 90s of last century, national demand required the forming a strong Cor in manufacturing and trading of steel nationwide; it should be capable of raising capital, investment, management and using the key projects of large scale, modern technology to improve production capacity, with strong competitiveness in the market On that basis, on 29 May 04 1995 Vietnam Steel Corporation was established under Decision No 255/ TTg of the Prime Minister.On 25 January 1996, the Government's Decree No 03 / CP approved the organizational and operational charter of the Vietnam Steel Corporation as a legal business, operating under the States Lawon Enterprise After consolidating the organizational structure and key personnel, on 16 March 1996, the Cor was put officially into operation Currently, VNSTEEL operating under the model of parent-subsidiary company, which includes 11 affiliated units, 14 subsidiary companies and 28 joint-venture companies VNSTEEL business activities are mainly in the field of manufacturing and trading steel; relevant equipment to the steel industry; in addition to other activities as 10 financial investments; port trading and mining, service receptions, warehousing, factories, offices, housing; investment, business infrastructure, industrial parks, urban and real estate; labor export 3.1 Characteristics of business activities, management, and accounting work in the steel MEs under Vietnam Steel Corporation 3.2.1 Characteristics of the business of the steelMEs under Vietnam Steel Corporation In the past years, although the steel manufacturing companies in VSC have been significantly invested and made rather remarkable development, achieved high growth rate, it is still in a state of under development compared to regional and international corporations This can be seen in the following aspects: equipment is small, mainly old-fashioned, backward; technology level and level of levels of automation are low; product quality is limited; the structure of products is narrow, monotonous Companies can only produce long rolled products, small and mediumsized steels, with the popularity being low carbon steels On the market, long-rolled steel products are in excess while flat-rolled steel products faces a shortfall (and have to import) The productivity of billet is too small; the plants and rolling basis are much reliant on the billet imports Most domestic flat-rolled products are imported Production cost is high with low labor productivity, overcrowded workers; unstable price leading to low competitiveness The ability to export steel products is very limited 3.2.2 Characteristics of management operations in MEs of steel under Vietnam Steel Corporation Vietnam Steel Corporation is one of 17 State Corporation established by the Prime Minister and operating under TCT 91 model- the model major Group of the State Organizational structure and executive management of the Corporation follow the provisions of the Law on State Enterprises and TCT regulations approved by the Government Vietnam Steel Corporation and the member MEs operate by the model of parent company.Through survey, most of members have simplified and lightweight management A few companies have more complex management due to typical nature 3.2.3 Characteristics of accounting organization of MEs of steel under Vietnam Steel Corporation - Through fieldwork, MEs of steel under Vietnam Steel Corporation often apply one of two forms of accounting organization: centralized accounting organization, and mixture of centralized and decentralized accounting organizations Their organization of accounting is in accordance with Decision 15/2006 / QD-BTC dated 20/3/2006 of the Minister of Finance and other legal related documents 3.3 Status of financial accounting of costs, revenues, earnings MEs of steel under Vietnam Steel Corporation 11 3.3.1 Status of cost accounting in MEs of steel under Vietnam Steel Corporation 3.3.1.1 Cost classification in MEs of steel under Vietnam Steel Corporation (VSC) According to the survey results, MEs of steel under VSC apply the classification of cost only by expense items to cater to the requirements of FA, including DRMC, DLC, GOC, selling expenses (SE), GAE, financing activities expenses and other expenses In addition, the Companies not use any other methods of expense classifications 3.3.1.2 The nature of cost accounting in MEs of steel under Vietnam Steel Corporation (VSC) * Subjects and methods of cost collection in MEs of steel under VSC According to the survey results, most of MEs collect costs by production firms, teams, some of which by type of steel products Most of them collect expense by the direct method * The account nature of collecting costs in MEs of steel under VSC Accounting vouchers reflect costs at in MEs of steel under VSC Through fieldwork, MEs of steel under VSC basically abide the regulations on expenditure vouchers issued by Ministry of Finance, as a legal basisfor MA data and documents Ledgers and accounts reflected in the cost of steel production company under the Vietnam Steel Corporation The system of ledgers and accounts for expenses now being applied in the surveyed MEs generally adhere to the corporate accounting regime according to the Decision 15/2006 / QD-BTC Besides, in some MEs, the opening ũ the ledger did not match the regulations For example, the companies have registered and used the form of general journal accounting; however, they open the list (which belong to ledger journal vouchers) to observe and reflect the costs incurred such as Thai Nguyen Iron and Steel Joint Stock Company, Natsteel Vinal Ltd., Phu My Flat steel Company, Accounting collected cost MEs of steel under VSC The identification and determining the content and scope of the expenses in some steel MEs under VSC fails to ensure the validity and consistency Many expenses are not identified and classified according to the contents and scope That inevitably leads to inexact information on costs, which affects business decisions of managers The identification and classification of costs in the steel MEs of VSC only aim to serve FA, not meet the requirements of MA Currently, in some MEs of steel under VSC, the identification and accounting some costs are incompatible with regulations (submaterials, meals between shifts, insurance money, etc.), leading to incorrect information in costs, which affects the determination of earnings and management information tri Opening detailed accounts 12 for expenses, revenue is not really consistent with their own business characteristics The process of opening books and recording accounting data in some steel MEs is not properly implemented as regulated Given the current economic trends, MEs use the method of inventory costing (weighted-average method) is not really consistent with business characteristics of the steel production industry, fails to reflect the true value of supplies and raw materials used in the period as well as the actual depreciation of assets during the period Also, in many MEs, the management of supplies and materials are loose and does not abide regulations, resulting in arisen waste in cost of materials The characteristic of the steel industry is large amount of inventory; however, the MEs not really take care of and comply with the regulations in provision of devaluations of inventories The assessment and valuation of work in progress; faulty products; scraps after production; cost of downtime are not much interested The management and cost accounting has not been done properly, the valuation is too subjective with the ground calculation is not really reasonable Therefore, incorrect information of costs affect negatively on the business decisions of managers The recording of in-advance payment of leave for workers and repairing large amount of fixed assets into by steel MEs of the Vietnam Steel Corporation does not comply with the provisions of current accounting regulations (at the production company of steel, the number of workers is very huge; repair costs of fixed assets (fixed assets) per year is quite much because production line was put into operation a long time ago) The value of fixed assets MEs of steel under VSC is very large, especially the value of technology and machinery for production process However, the company has not determined either allocated fixed GOC or non-allocated fixed GOC So today, although most of them not produce to their full capacity, MEs of steel under VSC still calculate the whole depreciation cost of fixed assets in product prices 3.3.2 Status of revenue accounting inMEs of steel under Vietnam Steel Corporation 3.3.2.1 Classification of revenue in MEs of steel under Vietnam Steel Corporation (VSC) According to the survey results, MEs of steel in VSC, basically, the recognition of revenue and earnings is in accordance with the standard 14 "Revenue and earnings." Revenue incurred in the company mainly includes: goods and services sale, internal sale, financial activities income, and other sale At the moment, in VSC, the classification of revenue is only to serve the requirements of FA, not those of MA MEs primarily classify their revenue by the status of business activities, including: goods sale, finished product sale, services sale (Phu My Flat Steel Company, Southern Steel Company, VPS Ltd.Co etc.) A few MEs classify their revenue by managerial requirements of the units, namely Nha Be Steel Company (sales of finished products, 13 scrap sales, service sales, sales materials and other revenue), in TISCO (Thai Nguyen Iron and Steel JSC, revenue classified by the relationship with systems organizational business enterprises (internal sales, external sales), etc 3.3.2.2 The nature of revenue accounting in MEs under VSC * Accounting vouchers to reflect revenue reflects in MEs under VSC Through fieldwork survey, MEs under VSC had adopted and applied fairly effectively the regime of revenue accounting documents issued by the Ministry of Finance as the legal basis for the FA documents and data However, the use of vouchers for revenue recognition in some MEs is not yet accurate: Poll cum internal transport are used to serve the internal sale and sometimes external sales (in TISCO) The recordings of invoices and documents still have mistakes that are corrected or erased and missing dates and signatures of buyers * Accounts and ledgers to reflect sales in MEs of steel under VSC Through the survey findings, the system of accounts and ledger for sales now being applied in MEs surveyed mostly are in compliance with the accounting regime from the Decision 15/2006 / QD-BTC The application of the system of accounts and ledger is basically consistent However, opening detailed accounts of revenue MEs under VSC is not properly done as prescribed, and not really suitable to the characteristics of the steel industry * Accounting for sales MEs of steel under Vietnam Steel Corporation The accounting and recognition of revenue MEs not ensure the right conditions for revenue recognition in accordance with prescribed current accounting standards and regulations (sales of finished products to reflect and to be accounted intosales of goods, services sale to reflect and to be accounted into other income, customers prepaid cash into increased revenue accounting ), affecting management information and business decisions In addition, some documents amongst levels and tax authorities and other agencies under Ministry of Finance not have a consistency, leading to difficulties faced by revenue accounting and recognition in the steel MEs 3.3.3 Status of earnings accounting in steel MEs under Vietnam Steel Corporation 3.3.3.1 Earnings characteristics in MEs of steel under VSC Through fieldwork, MEs of steel under VSC recognize earnings on a monthly basis Net profit from operating activities are determined by closing the whole net sales and cost of products, goods and services of all kinds of production and business operations together with the selling expenses, GAE, financial activities incomes and expenses into Acc 911 to balance total revenue and total cost To cater for the management, MEs of steel mainly classify their business activities on the approach of FA reflection, which includes: sales from production and trading, financial activities income, and sales from other activities 14 3.3.3.2 The nature of accounting earnings in MEs under VSC * Vouchers, accounting books of earnings in MEs under VSC Through practical survey of steel MEs under Vietnam Steel Corporation, the popular form of bookkeeping is general journals and voucher Basically, MEs opened fully the ledgers and detailed books to reflect the results of operations However, some MEs did not abide regulations on opening books, like TISCO, Natsteel vina Ltd.Co Though they kept general journals, they did use some of voucher recordings to observe and record data In addition, some companies has not recorded and processed documents as prescribed, as in POSVINA Co., whose bookkeeping is the voucher book; however, the setting of recording vouchers was th made only from 20 monthly to the end ofthe month The company could not reflect timely economic transactions that arose * Accounts to reflect earnings in MEs of steel under VSC According to the survey results, for an observation and accounting of earnings (INCOME), MEs of steel under Vietnam Steel Corporation all open accounts 911 "earnings" To cater to the management, most of them opened detailed accounts by their field of operation The determination of earnings is easy and straightforward, but the resulting information is not useful for managers 3.4 Management accounting (MA) of cost, revenue, earnings in MEs of steel under Vietnam Steel Corporation Through fieldwork in the steel MEs under VSC, MA in general and C,R,E accounting in particular have not been paid adequate attention but for some initial implementation in perspectives of MA 3.4.1 Develop norms and estimates of cost, sales, earnings in MEs under Vietnam Steel Corporation The survey showed that the annually steel MEs under Vietnam Steel Corporation only made "manufacturing business plan" for the business operations The manufacturing business plan" is actually a master plan with several technical indicators, production factors; and fails to meet the needs of MA Specifically, most of MEs made tables of specifications, production plans, and plans for primary suppliers and materials, pricing A few MEs has made marketing plans like TISCO, NatSteel vina Such norms and estimates as norms in DLC, GOC, DRMC; estimates in GOC, DLC, selling expenses, and GAE have not yet been implemented by MEs 3.4.2 Report of management accounting in costs, revenues, and earnings in MEs of steel under Vietnam Steel Corporation The surveys show that the MA reports by MEs are in fact financial statement in detail These reports mainly consist of details for some criteria which have not been presented in the financial statements with a view to bring about additional information on corporate business for the administrator Therefore, the detailed accounting reports 15 fail to present the most useful information in accordance with the concept of administrators in terms of the company's earnings Currently, MEs are using mainly the following reports: report on the cost implementation, reports to analyze some indicators, report on the implementation of the plan and import-export-stock report The detailed reports are prepared periodically as financial statements, so they are often not able to meet the timeliness of information for effective management decisions 3.4.3 Analysis of costs, revenues, and earnings to serve managerial needs in MEs of steel under Vietnam Steel Corporation According to the survey, most steel MEs under Vietnam Steel Corporation, took first steps to gather and analyze information in C, R, E However, such analysis is limited to the comparison between planned and implemented cost factors through "business plans" They have not made any analysis in breakeven point as well as the cost-revenue-income relationship one of important analysis in MA Some reports like income statement, balance Sheet are analyzed in greater detail but still limited some basic tasks to analyze financial statements as capital structure, short-term debt structure, liquidity, margins, capital mobility, etc 3.5 Overall assessment of cost, revenue, and earnings accounting in steel MEs under Vietnam Steel Corporation 3.5.1 The results obtained C, R, E accounting in MEs under VSC was basically strictly abiding the Accounting Law, accounting rules and standards and apply the current mechanism of accounting 3.5.2 Some basic inadequacies * Regarding the FA - The identification and determination of content and scope of the clause C, R, and E in n MEs under VSC have not been carried out and the classification of right content and scope is not sufficiently reasonable and consistent and only aims to serve FA, not MA - In some steel MEs under VSC, the identification and accounting of some costs (C) are incompatible with the regulations Opening detailed accounts for expenses, revenue is not really consistent with their own business characteristics In many MEs, the management of supplies and materials are loose; MEs not really take care of and comply with the regulations in provision of devaluations of inventories The assessment and valuation of work in progress; faulty products down; scraps after production; cost of downtime are not much interested The management and cost accounting has not been done properly, the valuation is too subjective with the ground calculation is not really reasonable The recording of in-advance payment of leave for workers and repairing large amount of fixed assets into by steel MEs of the Vietnam 16 Steel Corporation does not comply with the provisions of current accounting regulations MEs have not determined either allocated fixed GOC or non-allocated fixed GOC Although most of them not produce to their full capacity, MEs of steel under VSC still calculate the whole amortization cost of fixed assets in product prices - Revenue accounting and recognition in some MEs are not properly carried out as prescribed by current accounting standards and regime Documents used to recognize revenue on some MEs fail to follow the rules; recording and writing invoices still contain corrections, erases, or missing dates or signature of buyers Opening detailed accounts for revenue is not really consistent with regulations and their own business characteristics The process of opening books and recording accounting data in some steel MEs is not properly implemented as regulated * Regarding the MA MA in steel MEs under VSC has been implemented; however, it is simply initial implementation of a number of MA in C,R, and E In particular, every year, MEs conducted "manufacturing business plan" for its business activities The creation of "business plan" in MEs only meets the requirements of FA, not MA "Production and Business Planning" is incomplete and lack of synchronization In fact, just few MEs have a complete system of standard norms and budgeting for costs and revenues MA reports in MEs are actually just FA detailed reports The analysis of information in C, R, E is simply the comparison between planned and implemented results of some factors through "business plans" Some reports like Income Statement, Balance Sheet are more thoroughly analyzed but also with some basic contents in a financial statement such as capital structure, the structure of short-term debt, the liquidity, ROE, capital mobility, etc 3.5.3 The cause of the limitations and shortcomings * Causes from the State Firstly, The inadequacies of the steel industry result from the lack of management bodys closeness in licensing rampant and unplanned investment into this sector that caused serious imbalances These products are often over-invested, supply far exceeding demand (supply surplus) Secondly, documents amongst ministries and other levels are inconsistent and overlapping For examples, there is a mismatch between the Investment Law and Engineering Law, between Accounting Law and Tax Law,etc Thirdly, currently, the many points in accounting law and accounting standards also are inappropriate, inconsistent with economic typical management mechanism of Vietnam 17 Fourthly, the makers of accounting regimes only pay attention to many FA aspects:controlling enterprises by the State, protecting interests for state enterprises, with no or little attention given to MA * Causes from the company Firstly, the awareness of the role of accounting information in management is limited Thus, MA has not been paid adequate attention Secondly, accounting regime changes frequently leading to slow and incomplete update and application in MEs Thirdly,qualification and professional capacity of accounting staff in MEs cannot really meet the needs in new conditions CHAPTER SOLUTIONS TO PERFECT COST, REVENUE, AND EARNINGS ACCOUNTING, SSTEEL MANUFACTURING ENTERPRISES UNDER VIETNAM STEEL CORPORATION 4.1 Some principal orientations in the development of Vietnam's steel industry to 2020 4.1.1 Development viewpoint The orientation development of steel industry must be consistent with the socio- economic development of the country proposed by Resolutions of the National Party Congress IX, X This orientation is reflected in the development planning of Vietnamese 2007-2020, extended to 2025 that has been approved by the Prime Minister's by Decision No 694 / QD-BCT dated January 31, 2013 4.1.2 Development orientation - The development of domestic steel production must follow a diversification approach, namely: construction steel, cold rolled steel, hot rolled steel, galvanized metal Particularlly the investment into production of high quality steel and alloy steel is encouraged to serve mechanical engineering and shipbuilding industry as a substitute for imported steel The investment into cast iron, cast steel from iron ore, some species of hot rolled steel products, alloy steel, etc is prioritized Advanced equipment and technology and energy-saving technologies, high performance and environmentally friendly technololies are all to be invested -The system of steel distribution are constructed and developed in the form of vertical and horizontal integration, matching the characteristics of goods, consumption trends and market segments; attaching the supply and consumption of products; thelinkages between manufacturers, distributors, service and regular customers are strengthened ; information technology and e-commerce transactions are applied 4.1.3 Objectives of development - Developing Vietnam's steel industry meets sufficiently the demand of steel 18 products for the national economy, ensures the stability for domestic consumption market and export The development of the steel industry must be sustainable and environmentally friendly 4.2 The basic requirement for perfecting cost, revenue, and earnings accounting in steel manufacturing enterprises of Vietnam Steel Corporation The perfection of C, R, and E accounting of steel MEs under Vietnam Steel Corporation is of objective need and urgent nature Such improvement must meet the following basic requirements: suitable to the Law on Accounting, accounting Standards and relevant accounting policies by the Government of Vietnam; consistent with the international accounting principles and standards; consistent with the business environment and organizational characteristics of business activities; implemented in perspectives of both FA and MA so as to ensure a sufficient provision of information for those interested in these MEs corporate accounting information 4.3 Solutions for perfecting cost, revenue, and earnings accounting in steel MEs of Vietnam Steel Corporation 4.3.1 Perfecting cost, revenue, and earnings accounting in steel MEs of Vietnam Steel Corporation on the approach of financial accounting (FA) 4.3.1.1 Perfecting cost, revenue, and earnings accounting in steel MEs of Vietnam Steel Corporation * Identify the content and scope of business expenses To ensure that identified earnings is detailed and accurate, in addition to an accurate and sufficient calculation for cost of operating activities, the Company shall determine the contents of expenses as a basis for management and estimation for cost budgeting for the sake of accurate and efficient operating activities * Accounting the direct raw materials cost (1) With steel production industry, DRMC makes up a large share; therefore, in order to precisely gather and observe the DRMC, the steel MEs under Vietnam Steel Corporation have to open the level-2 and level-3 accounts in detail by each type of product (2) Steel MEs need to comply with the right accounting method of inventory selected (parallel card method) in order to manage inventory well and to avoid wastage, loss, and to help determine accurately the inventory value used during production as well as that of the remainings, ensuring a full and exact accounting of this expense item (3) Currently, most of domestic transportation costs, costs of payment, etc have not been accounted by MEs into cost of warehouse goods The steel MEs related to imports need to determine exactly the amount of the purchased material capital in stock (cost of procurement has to include inland transportation fees and payment expenses ) 19 (4) Because there was no valuation and inventory of remaining materials (M), unfinished products, and scrap salvage after each production process, the determination of the actual expenses incurred during the period is not accurate, significantly affecting the decisions of the managers Therefore, the company should perform an inventory of unfinished products, scrap recovery, and material remaining after each process as regulated (5) Characteristics of the MEs of steel is mostly to import; in the context of fluctuations in the world economy today, prices for imported raw material is not stable and foreign exchange rates fluctuate widely The valuation of prices for inventory sold according to the weighted-average method at the moment would not accurately reflect the value of raw material used in the production period and not guarantee capital clawbacks The steel MEs should choose first-in-first-out method (FIFO) to calculate the raw material used in the production period facilicating informed decision-making by administrators (6) The characteristics of the steel MEs is large amount of inventory, so the determination of the net value of inventory as currently done affects the truthfulness of the information on inventory goods ( stocks) Therefore, the provision fordevaluation of stocks is inaccurate, adversely affecting MEs plans They need to give interest in and to comply with regulations on provisions of provision for devaluation of stocks In addition, the company should give priority to alternating hi-tech production lines Modern technology and the technological solutions will help them promote economies of scale and reduce costs * Accounting direct labor costs(DLC) In MEs of steel, the number of workers is large However, most of the companớe did not pay in advance vacation pay The failure to account this wage can lead to labor costs (costs) in the periods to grow up greatly( especially when the number of workers to leave focus on one point of time) * Accounting general operation costs (1) Given the characteristics of the steel production industry and products, the MEs should open the account (level 2, level 3) in detail for each type of product with GOC item (2) Currently, the collection and accounting of the costs to close down production in MEs not comply with the regulations (collection and accounting of GOC, regardless of objective or subjective reasons), henc having a great impact on business plan and management information for managers (typically, expense for each production closing is very large) The steel MEs under Vietnam Steel Corporation must comply with regulations on accounting and cost management for closing down production (3) Most of the steel production line have been quite long used Maintenance and 20 (4) (5) (6) 4.3.1.2 repair costs annually for this line is high Therefore, the companớe need to plan for mainenance and deduct in advance repair costs of fixed assets into cost of business in accordance with regulations This in-advance deduction of fixed assets will help them to avoid rocketed costs, affecting prices and production goals in the period "Rollers" is a unit of steel production line, which must be replaced regularly after taking a few cycles of production Therefore, companies should not account all costs by "rollers" into one period as the moment, but account the entire value of the tools (rollers) used in period in to prepaid expense accounts (Acc 142 or 242) and amortized into production cost in subsequent periods As for GOC, MEs need to define fixed and variable GOCs and account as prescribed, particularly in case that they have to produce moderately (not at full capacity designed ) as being done at the moment The clear determination of fixed and variable GOCs and appropriate accounting will help managers to have a right valuation of product prices, leading to appropriate management decisions on the number of products to be produced and sold, or the selling price in each particular stage, Currently, most of compaines not have norms for damaged products as well as valuation of such after production The entire cost of faulty products is accounted into GOC or the product price In couple with inaccurate information about product price, the current management will not improve the responsibility of workers low performance.Therefore, the steel MEs need to monitor and account correctly in accordance with regulations on faults * Accounting selling and general & administrationexpenses The steelMEs under Vietnam Steel Corporation must identify and classify and separately account selling and general & administrationexpenses in accordance with current regulations, instead of current accounting into cgeneral accounting expenses (Acc 642) Improving revenue accounting in the Steel Manufacturing Company of Vietnam Steel Corporation * Defining the content and scope of revenue Currently, determining the content and scope of revenues in the steel MEs under Vietnam Steel Corporation has not really ensured rationality and consistency To ensure that the determination of earnings is detailed and accurate, in addition to accurate and adequate calculation of revenue, the MEs have to correctly identify and gather the contents of revenue, as the basis for accurately and efficiently managing the business activities * Recognition of revenue The steel manufacturing companies need to record revenue in accordance with existing regulations, especially in the case customers make prepaid payment but not 4.3.1.3 4.3.2 4.3.2.1 4.3.2.2 * 21 22 yet receive goods delivered by MEs * Processing documents, accounts, and ledgers in revenue The use of vouchers, accounting books of revenue in some steel MEs fails to comply with regulations The company needs to make sure that the documents recording revenues should be written accurately, full of content and the basic elements Besides the use of ledger observeing revenue must also comply prescribed procedures (ledger must conform to the sample with which the company has registered); they cannot take one form of accounting records to replace other forms of accounting as currently applied by some companis * Apply the policy to boost product sales Given the fact that goods of steel inventory MEs very much The steel MEs policies should be discounted, discounts for regular customers, reputed to increase sales and business more efficient Improving earnings accounting in MEs of steel under Vietnam Steel Corporation Currently, the majority of steel MEs define their earnings/ income by field of business and production In this way, information about earnings has not met all the conditions required by CM-corporate management In integration, the more detailed earnings information, the more favourable it is to facilitate the management; it is a factor to ensure the successes in business decisions So MEs of steel under Vietnam Steel Corporation should determine the earnings for each class or group of products Improving cost, revenue, and earnings accounting, in steel MEs of Vietnam Steel Corporation in perspective of management accounting (MA) Improving the organization of accounting to serve MA in steel MEs of Vietnam Steel Corporation Based on their size and economic power , the steel MEs should complement the existing accounting system to perform MA Given characteristics of Vietnam's economy in general and those of steel industry in particular, the steel MEs should select an accounting model that is the combinaiton of MA and FA, hence, to meet the different requirements of the management in addition to FA Perfecting the classification of cost and revenue in steel MEs of Vietnam Steel Corporation Improving the classification of expenses to meet requirements of enterprise management The classification of costs into groups in the steel Steel MEs under Vietnam Steel Corporation only meet the needs of information for FA, not for MA MEs should classify the entire cost of business in relation to the level of activity (variable expense and fixed expense and mixed expenses) These classification of costs will meet the requirements of the administrator of the steel Mes with regard to cost planning, control and proactive regulation of costs, making the business decisions quick and effective Improving the allocation of costs to serve corporate governance While MEs have to be moderate in production (not to theirfull design capacity) due to delayed consumption, the allocation of the entire GOC cost into finished products does not accurately reflect the information on the product price for administrators The ompanies must comply with regulations on the allocation of GOC expenses Improving the classification of revenue to serve administrator The classification revenue by business performance now can only meet the needs of FA In order to serve the information needs of managers, MEs should classify their revenue in relation with the break-even pointn.As such, they can determine the breakeven point or safety point for each business plan, based on which the company can make the possible best business plans Improving norms andestimates of cost, revenue, and earnings in steel MEs of Vietnam Steel Corporation The building of norms and estimates of cost, revenue, and earnings in steel MEs is insufficient and lack of consitency Actually, this work is simply making "business plan" for a number of company activities such as: table of specifications, plans of manufacturing products, materials planning, cost planning, consumption plan.The construction, management and use of "business plan" only meet the requirements of FA, not corporate governance.Therefore, to carry out MA, meeting information needs of managers, MEs need to adjust and set up additional estimates in cost, revenue, and earnings for business periods + About the cost: to build additional estimates for DLC and GOC costs + About estimates of production: Currently, in the steel MEs some production planscan be considered as estimates: productn consumption plans, plan for manufacturing products, plans for main materials However, the companies need to build and add criteria for these plans so that they can fulfil the needs of information for administrators In addition, they should establish additional estimates for the followings: DLC and GOC estimates, estimates for cost of sales, cost estimates for GEM, and income estimates Improving the analysis of information on costs, revenues, and earnings to serve decision making in the Steel Manufacturing Companies of Vietnam Steel Corporation The steel Steel MEs under Vietnam Steel Corporation have to make analysis and evaluation of the implementation of estimates nad norms in cost, revenue, and earnings after each period of business Thereby, the managers can make informed decisions for the next business methods Cost fluctuaions/ volatility analysis: This includes the analysis of volatilities in DRMC, DRC, and GOC expenses This analysis will help the steel MEs to identify * * 4.3.2.3 4.3.2.4 - 23 potential, subjective to objective reasons affecting the increase or decrease in the actual cost Then, managers can have the right solution and promptly to modify or continue to promote those changes to benefit the company - Analysis of revenue volatility : revenue analysis will allow MEs of steel to compare and evaluate the interval implementation of targets and find out causes of increased and reduced revenues as planned and in implementeation; thus, they can make right solutions timely to raise revenue for each activity -Analysis of management reporting system of the company: To know the budgeting of consumption, manufacturing, sales in the period, the steel MEs have to conduct joint assessment of the implementation plan, enabling administrators to understand any increase or decrease between planning and implementing during the period, both in absolute and relative numbers + Analysis of the income statement: The analysis of results of operating activities will allow the steel MEs assess the activities of the Company basing on revenues, expenses and profit These can be compared by relative or absolute number to see the volatility of returns; They also can see MEs interest structure by comparing the interest proportion of each activity over the total interest over the years to see main operations to brings profits for MEs + Analysis of performance report by business segments: This kind of report will help MEs of steel to assess the level of profit contribution of each part to the whole company + Analysis of Labour Report : Depending on the purpose of the analysis of the various management levels within the company, steel MEs can analyze the labour report from different angles, such as, analyzing the report on labor productivity by working hour, date, or by month, quarter, year, or analyzing reports by materials, value or time + Sales Report Analysis : This is a report in which managers are often interested Especially in the context of current backlog of goods, the analysis of sales reports help managers of MEs see subjective and objective causes and potentials Therefore, they will have solutions to accelerate consumption, capital rotation and to promote development of production 4.4 Requirements for the implemnation of solutions to perfecting cost, revenue, and earnings accounting in steel MEs of Vietnam Steel Corporation 4.4.1 Requirements for the State and the authorities * On the part of State agencies - The state should improve the financial institutions, legal system, complete current accounting regulations in accordance with the conditions of market based economy inVietnam and with international accounting practices and standards Documents between the ministries need to be consistent in terms of content 24 - It is important to have accounting policies that designate the scope of reflection for FA and MA together with guidelines for the implementation of MA enacted by state agencies - The authorities of the State have to make resolute refusals to licensing off- planning projects In addition, the managerial bodies should study and strongly suggest mechanisms and policies to help enterprises overcome difficulties: + There should be strong measures to withdraw permissions for the steel offplanning projects not performing the procedures on investment issued by the government so that there is no more steel projects that is already in excess + There shoud be great respect towards rules issued by Ministry of Industry and Trade on the investment scale and capacity and the conditions for steel projectssustainable development + The investments into manufacture of imported products should be encouraged in order to reduce the trade deficit + At the same time, there should be a close supervision over the FDI investment projects; it is important to stop them if they are simply seizing of of land to look for opportunities to make a profit + The steel companies which are no longer able to compete due to having outdated and energy-intensive and high cost technology and equipment would be forced to stop or resale their plants for potential investors to make technological innovation, ensuring effectiveness * On the part of the authorities: - Vietnam Association of Accountants and auditors as a professional organization should facilitate companiesin the implementation of management accounting; promote their roles in recommending producers and consumers of steel to use local high quality steel; support the growth of research and development, and human resources training to improve competitiveness 4.4.2 Requirements for the Vietnam Steel Corporation(VSC) and the member units - VSC and its members should be aware of the importance of accounting information systems in general and information system of cost, revenue, and earnings accounting in enterprises in particular during their operations of business activities - VSC and its members foster and raise their accounting staffs qualifications to meet the requirements of perfecting cost, revenue, and earnings accounting in companies - Develop systems of cost norms accurately and appropriately to be used in companies to provide reliable data for MA in cost forecast and control - Managers need to to have a right awareness of the role and functions of MA in corporate administration Thereby, they can take the initiative to build models of MA organizations proper to their enterprises 25 - The steel MEs need to be restructured in order that they can compete with the world's steel products sold locally For steel MEs with outdated and energyintensive technology and no longer able to compete, they must boldly stop or resell facilities to investors who have financial resources to upgrade manufacturing technology, ensuring efficient economy In addition, the company needs to boldly implement the acquisition or merger (M & A) with some ineffective MEs Concurrently, they have to promote the inter-cooperation and inter-partnership, creating strong brand names, shift investments to different types of steel which are not yet produced GENERAL CONCLUSION Vietnams Party and Government have been aware and taken care of the influence by roles and importance of the steel industry on the national economic development As a country with a growing economy, Vietnam has been progressively integrated into the global economy Integration into the world economy is favorable and important to our country's economic development; however, the market economy with its challenges is also really influential on the existence and development of Vietnamese enterprises Steel MEs in Vietnam is no exception to these challenges In order to survive and sustain, Vietnamese steel MEs noticed that there is a great need for improvement in all aspects, especially the improvement and perfection of economic management tools In the system of enterprise management tools, accounting is one of the most effective allowing the administrator of enterprises to obtain accurate, authentic and timely objective information to timely offer the most effective business strategies In fact, there are many shortcomings in Vietnamese accounting system which are not entirely consistent with international accounting standards and practices and fail to meet the requirements of enterprise management The inadequacies in accounting C, E, and earnings are of signinficant impact on the financial status of the companies, reducing the effectiveness for enterprises system of control and evaluation The study entitled "Improving cost revenue, and earnings accountings in steel manufacturing companies under Vietnam Steel Corporation" aims to help these enterprises to improve their cost, revenue, earnings accountings to meet the needs of economic integration, making a contribution to the steel Mes sustainable development in the market economy Within the scope of the research, the disertation has given answers to the followings: The dissertation clarified the rationale for C, R, E accounting in ME On the basis of international accounting standards in C, E, R accounting and models of France and the United States The paper suggests models of accounting in 26 general and C, R, E accounting in particular earnings that should be applied to MEs in Vietnam To conduct investigations, surveys, research and to analyse C, R, Eaccounting situation in the Steel Manufacturing Companies under Vietnam Steel Corporation Thereby, the paper points out the advantages and limitations, drawbacks and causes of these problems The dissertation proposes solutions to improve C, R, E accounting on approaches of both financial accounting and management accountings Conditions for the implementation of this solution: These solutions are based on pratical requirements, hence are scientific and feasible These solutions can be not only apC ofied to steel MEs under Vietnam Steel Corporation but also studied and applied other steel MEs nationwide With its content, the dissertation succeeds in reaching its research objectives aforementioned However, due to the complexity in the management model of the Vietnam Steel Corporation; the diversity of economic transactions arising in the context of economic integration; modest perception and experience of the author herself, there are inevitable shortcomings and drawbacks in the dissertation Therefore, constructive comments and suggestions by teachers, experts, scientific researchers, managers and those who care are highly appreciated
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Xem thêm: Hoàn thiện kế toán chi phí, doanh thu, kết quả kinh doanh trong các doanh nghiệp sản xuất thép thuộc tổng công ty thép việt nam LATS đại học kinh tế quốc dân , Hoàn thiện kế toán chi phí, doanh thu, kết quả kinh doanh trong các doanh nghiệp sản xuất thép thuộc tổng công ty thép việt nam LATS đại học kinh tế quốc dân , Hoàn thiện kế toán chi phí, doanh thu, kết quả kinh doanh trong các doanh nghiệp sản xuất thép thuộc tổng công ty thép việt nam LATS đại học kinh tế quốc dân

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