a study on the collocations of lexical verb do with vietnamese equivalents = nghiên cứu các kết hợp từ của động từ do và tương dương trong tiếng việt

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1 VIETNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY, HANOI UNIVERSITY OF LANGUAGES AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES FACULTY OF POST-GRADUATE STUDIES ***************** ĐỖ THỊ NGỌC LAN A STUDY ON THE COLLOCATIONS OF LEXICAL VERB „DO‟ WITH VIETNAMESE EQUIVALENTS (Nghiên cứu các kết hợp từ của động từ „do‟ và tương đương trong tiếng Việt) M.A. Minor Programme Thesis Field: English Linguistics Code: 60 22 15 HANOI - 2010 iii TABLE OF CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS i ABSTRACT ii TABLE OF CONTENTS iii INTRODUCTION 1 1. Rationale of the study 1 2. Aims of the study 2 3. Scope of the study 2 4. Methods of the study 3 5. Design of the study 3 CHAPTER 1: THEORETICAL BACKGROUNDS AND LITERATURE REVIEW 5 1.1. English collocation 5 1.1.1. The origin of the word „collocation‟ 5 1.1.2. Definitions of collocation 5 1.1.3. The distinction between free compounds, idioms and collocations 6 1.1.4. Classification of collocation 8 1.1.4.1. In terms of frequent use 8 1.1.4.2. In terms of structure 8 1.1.4.3. In terms of strength 10 iv 1.1.5. Characteristics of collocation 10 1.1.5.1. Collocations are arbitrary 10 1.1.5.2. Collocations are language-specific 11 1.1.5.3. Collocations are not necessarily adjacent 12 1.2. Theory of verbs 13 1.2.1. Definition 13 1.2.2. Classification 13 1.2.2.1. Auxiliary verbs 14 1.2.2.2. Semi-auxiliary verbs 15 1.2.2.3. Lexical verbs (full verbs) 15 1.2.3. The verb „Do‟ in English 15 1.2.3.1. The auxiliary „do‟ 15 1.2.3.2. The lexical „do‟ 16 1.3. Review of some previous studies of collocations 17 CHAPTER 2: COLLOCATIONS OF LEXICAL VERB “DO” WITH VIETNAMESE EQUIVALENTS 20 2.1. Collocations of lexical verb „do‟ with Vietnamese equivalents 20 2.1.1. Form 21 2.1.2. Meanings 22 2.1.2.1. 'Do' for general ideas 22 2.1.2.2. 'Do' for –ing activities 23 2.1.2.3. „Do‟ for „an activity or a task‟ 24 v 2.1.2.4. „Do‟ for „business‟ 27 2.1.2.5. „Do‟ for „sport‟ 27 2.1.2.6. „Do‟ for „subjects of study‟ 29 2.1.2.7. „Do‟ in other cases 29 2.2. Summary 31 CONCLUSION 33 1. Recapitulation 33 2. Limitations of the study 33 3. Suggestions for further studies 34 REFERENCES 35 SOURCES OF DATA 38 1 PART I INTRODUCTION 1. Rationale of the study Vocabulary in general plays an important role in any language as we cannot communicate without words. British linguist Wilkins (1972:111) once stated “without vocabulary nothing can be conveyed”. There is a common assumption that the more words a learner knows, the larger the learner‟s vocabulary knowledge is. However, words are not used alone and separately but go with each other and depend on each other. Words are combined into phrases. There are free phrases and fixed phrases. The latter often confuse learners because there are not any fixed rules for all the combinations. English-as-a-second-language learners often have difficulties treating fixed phrases in their learning process. That is why many learners cannot communicate fluently although they know a lot of words. Therefore, the possible combinations of words or collocations have to be taken into consideration. Although collocation has become the subject of a linguistic study only recently, it arouses a growing interest in numerous linguists and is defined in various ways. Accordingly, there is no exhaustive and uniform definition or categorization of collocation. Therefore, it tends to be one of the most problematic and important area of vocabulary, especially for second language learners. Hill (1999:5) goes so far as to suggest: “We are familiar with the concept of communicative competence, but perhaps we should add the concept of collocational competence to our thinking”. He also claims that non-native speakers have problems “not because of faulty grammar but a lack of collocations”. Along with Hill, McCarthy (1990:12) claims that “collocation deserves to be a central aspect of vocabulary study.” These pieces of evidence done can show the great importance of collocation in acquisition of a language. The author would like to investigate the possibility of combining words into fixed expressions. As mentioned above, phrases are formed by words together. Words in English are classified into different classes in which verbs have always been one of the most complex classes of words because verb, or rather, phrasal verb is the central to the structure of the sentence. 2 According to Palmer (1965:1), “learning a language is, to a very large degree, how to operate the verbal forms, the pattern and the structure of the verb in that language”. There is a question which need to be answer is that how verbs collocate with other classes of word. A verb can collocate with a noun, a preposition, an adjective or even another verb. Verb phrases are then created. Investigating the combinations of verbs must be necessary for improving the students‟ knowledge and lessening their difficulties. As can be seen from the discussion above, collocation is a big area in linguistics. Due to the constraints of time, the focus of this study is only on the collocations with the lexical verb „do‟, a rather special and complex verb in English. Since the research is carried out against the Vietnamese backgrounds, the corresponding Vietnamese equivalents are also provided. The research is so entitled “A study on collocations of lexical verb „do‟ with Vietnamese equivalents”. 2. Aims of the study This study aims at investigating the collocations the lexical verb „do‟ in English. This study is carried out to serve three major purposes: - To give an overview of the concept of collocation with its main features, properties and classification. - To conduct an investigation into the collocations of lexical verb „do‟ - To give Vietnamese equivalents of collocations of „do‟. In order to get the above-aims, the following questions need to be addressed: 1. What are the meanings of „do‟ in a number of English collocations? 2. What are the Vietnamese equivalents of collocations with lexical verb „do‟ in corresponding contexts? 3. Scope of the study This study is confined to the investigation into a very small aspect of vocabulary issue - the collocations of the lexical verb „do‟ in English. The lexical „do‟ is chosen because „do‟ as an 3 auxiliary verb is limited in use for performing negative and interrogative sentences, or avoiding repetition or having emphasis function. Meanwhile „do‟ as lexical verb has a number of meanings when it collocate with other classes of word. In other words, the lexical „do‟ can be in different collocations with different meanings. „Do‟ as a lexical verb can collocate with a noun, a preposition, an adjective or an adverb, etc. Within the framework of an M.A. minor programme thesis, the author has no ambition to cover all the kinds of collocation with the lexical verb „do‟, but only „do + noun‟ collocations, based on the common assumption that this is the most frequent collocation of „do‟ and other kinds are less frequent in use and more often found in dictionaries. Vietnamese equivalents of collocations of „do‟ will be later discussed through analyzing English – Vietnamese examples in different contexts. 4. Methods of the study In order to obtain the above-said aims, the study is carried out basically through the descriptive and qualitative methods. The descriptive method is employed to give in depth and detailed description of collocations of lexical verb „do‟ in English. The work starts with a review of existing study results on collocations to provide a better understanding of the topic. Then different meanings of collocations of lexical verb „do‟ are described, and then examples are provided to illustrate the description. The qualitative method is used in collecting data. Collocations with the lexical verb „do‟ will be collected from different sources such as stories, books, magazines, journals, etc… then analyzed systematically to generalize the uses of these collocations. In addition, a comparative and contrastive view is used to compare and contrast collocations of „do‟ and their equivalents in Vietnamese. The method is, overall, both deductive and inductive. 5. Design of the study This study is composed of three main parts: The first part, Introduction, states reasons for choosing the topic, the aims of the study with the detailed methodology to gain these aims, the scope of the study and the organization of the study. 4 The second part, Development, includes two chapters: Chapter 1: features the review of related literature and the theoretical backgrounds for the study, in which the collocation and the theory of verbs will be discussed. The verb „do‟ will be also identified in terms of grammatical characteristics in structures related to „do‟. Chapter 2: presents and describes concrete cases of collocations with the lexical verb „do‟ with their Vietnamese equivalents in corresponding contexts. The third part is the Conclusion summarizing the main ideas discussed in the previous parts, showing the limitations of the study and providing the suggestions for further studies. 5 PART II CHAPTER 1 THEORETICAL BACKGROUNDS AND LITERATURE REVIEW 1.1. English collocation 1.1.1. The origin of the word „collocation‟ The term „collocation‟ was first introduced by Firth (1957), a British linguist. He was the first person to look lexis at its syntagmatic, left-to-right unfolding of language. According to Firth (1957), the collocation is defined as a combination of words associated with each other, for example to take a photo, to do homework, to play football The term „collocation‟ has it origin in the Latin verb „collocate‟ which means „to set in order/to arrange‟. 1.1.2. Definitions of collocation There are various definitions of collocation. It will be noted that forming a precise definition is difficult because different linguists have different and conflicting definitions as what Bahns (1993:57) says: “Regrettably, collocation is a term which is used and understood in many different ways”. Most of the researchers who define collocation agree that it is a lexical unit consisting of a cluster of two or three words. Firth is widely regarded as the father of this term and we can see that most of the definitions are paraphrases of Firth‟s (1957:183) definition that collocations are “words in habitual company”. This is a quite general definition. Collocation, then, refers to expressions in which individual words habitually go together. In the case of verb, for instance, the verb make goes with some words and the verb do with other words: We made an agreement. (NOT did an agreement) I did my homework. (NOT made my homework) The definition of collocation will be made clearer by his followers - Sinclair (1966) and Halliday (1966). For Halliday, collocations are examples of word combinations; he maintains 6 that collocation cuts across grammar boundaries. Sinclair (1966) introduces the following terminology: an item whose collocations are studies is called a „node‟; the number of relevant lexical items on each side of a node is defined as a „span‟ and those items which are found within the span are called „collocates‟. We can also find the definition of collocation in any dictionary. In the Oxford advanced learner‟s dictionary of current English (1995:A4), Hornby gives examples of the words „thick‟ and „dense‟. We can talk about both „thick fog‟ and „dense fog‟. The meaning is the same. But we do not talk about a person having *‟dense hair‟. This combination just does not sound right, even through it would easily be understood. „Dense‟ do not collocate with „hair‟. We can only talk about somebody having thick hair. For him, collocation is the regular combination of words. Runcie (2002:vii) gives general definitions of collocation that collocation is the way words combine in a language to produce natural-sounding speech and writing. Benson, Benson & Ilson (1986b:ix) understand and use this term: “In English, as in other languages, there are many fixed, identifiable, non-idiomatic phrases and constructions. Such groups of words are called recurrent combinations, fixed combinations, or collocations. Collocations fall into two groups: grammatical collocations and lexical collocations”. Thus, for him, collocation is defined as specified, identifiable, non-idiomatic, recurrent combinations. Two kinds of collocations: grammatical and lexical ones will be analyzed in the near following part. This definition is clearer with some properties and types of collocation. 1.1.3. The distinction between free compounds, idioms and collocations To attain a clearer understanding of collocations, it is helpful to try to distinguish them from idioms on the one hand and from free combinations on the other. Apparently, collocations, free compounds and idioms share one important feature in their form, that is to say they all refer to combinations of words that go together very often. However, the case is that they differ from each other in both meaning and form. [...]... English collocations and Vietnamese ones In the frame of an M .A thesis, the author would like to contribute a very minor investigation focusing on the collocation Verb + noun” (lexical collocation) with the verb do in order to facilitate students when dealing with these combinations of words Also, the Vietnamese equivalents are given to compare and contrast 20 CHAPTER 2 COLLOCATIONS OF LEXICAL VERB DO ... showed that there were very few syntactic errors, and that the examiners probably have treated syntactic and grammatical errors as one area of error only The author also realized that the errors being made were a result of the candidates' lack of knowledge of English collocations, whether they are grammatical or 19 lexical Moreover, in the frame of M .A thesis at Vietnam National University, Hanoi – University... general definition, words that express the idea of an action or being that affirm that a person, or a thing is, does, suffers something… are called verbs Verb is the most important part of the speech in the great majority of the sentences 1.2.2 Classification There are different ways to classify verbs The precise classification of the verbs depends on the total analysis In this thesis, the classification... Spanish grammar The verbs meet, give and improve in these sentences are called lexical verbs or full verbs 1.2.3 The verb do in English Do , like „have‟ and „be‟, can be used both as an auxiliary verb and a lexical verb It is the most neutral of all the auxiliaries It has no individual meaning but serves as an operator for the formation of the interrogative and the negative of the present simple and... do and to give you more of an idea about them In addition, the author has intention to present the Vietnamese equivalents of collocations of lexical verb do , specially to answer the question “How do is expressed in Vietnamese? ” Therefore, some relevant examples which are extracted from different materials are given to illustrate the meaning of do and its collocations in Vietnamese The researchers... and past simple tenses and also for emphasis or to convey a coherent style There is also a lexical verb do which has the full range of forms including the present participle doing and the past participle done 1.2.3.1 The auxiliary do As an auxiliary verb, do is the most neutral or “auxiliary like” of all the auxiliaries and has the following forms: 16 Non-negative Full negative Contracted negative... form grammatical frames while the elements of the „downward‟ collocation (mostly nouns and verbs) by contrast give a semantic analysis of a word These two terms are called respectively significant and casual collocations 1.1.4.2 In terms of structure Benson, Benson & Ilson (1977) divide collocations into two groups: grammatical and lexical collocations The first category consists of the main word (a noun,... many collocations Many of the expressions are fixed expressions such as: do homework, do business, do someone a favour, do the shopping… However, do do not combine with noun phrases such as a change, a choice, a decision, , a feeling, the commitment… So they are supposed to be faced with the challenge of using the right word combination for the lexical verb do In fact, the learners always make doubts... highlighted the importance of collocation In their research, German advanced EFL students' productive knowledge of English collocations consisting of a verb and a noun were investigated in a translation task and a close task Results suggested that EFL students should concentrate on collocations that cannot readily be paraphrased In his own article, Bahns (1993) also raised the neglected aspect of vocabulary and... researchers has no ambition to cover the translation matter in these examples, so the translation into Vietnamese is used only to illustrate the equivalent meanings of lexical verb do Any limitations of translation skill will be not mentioned here This part will begin first with the form of do + noun‟ collocations, then their meanings in different contexts All the examples are given both in English and Vietnamese . properties and classification. - To conduct an investigation into the collocations of lexical verb do - To give Vietnamese equivalents of collocations of do . In order to get the above-aims, the. equivalents are also provided. The research is so entitled A study on collocations of lexical verb do with Vietnamese equivalents . 2. Aims of the study This study aims at investigating the. questions need to be addressed: 1. What are the meanings of do in a number of English collocations? 2. What are the Vietnamese equivalents of collocations with lexical verb do in corresponding
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Xem thêm: a study on the collocations of lexical verb do with vietnamese equivalents = nghiên cứu các kết hợp từ của động từ do và tương dương trong tiếng việt, a study on the collocations of lexical verb do with vietnamese equivalents = nghiên cứu các kết hợp từ của động từ do và tương dương trong tiếng việt, a study on the collocations of lexical verb do with vietnamese equivalents = nghiên cứu các kết hợp từ của động từ do và tương dương trong tiếng việt

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