a study on the forms and meanings of lexical verb get and vietnamese equivalents nghiên cứu hình thái và ngữ nghĩa của động từ get và những tương đương trong tiếng việt

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VIET NAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY, HA NOI UNIVERSITY OF LANGUAGE & INTERNATIONAL STUDIES FACULTY OF POST – GRADUATE STUDIES ***************** ĐẶNG THỊ THÙY VÂN A STUDY ON THE FORMS AND MEANINGS OF LEXICAL VERB ‘ GET ’ AND VIETNAMESE EQUIVALENTS ( NGHIÊN CỨU VỀ HÌNH THÁI VÀ NGỮ NGHĨ A CỦA ĐỘNG TỪ ‘ GET ’ VÀ NHỮNG TƯƠNG ĐƯƠNG TRONG TIẾNG VIỆT ) MINOR M.A. THESIS Field : English Linguistics Code : 602215 Hanoi – 2010 VIET NAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY, HA NOI UNIVERSITY OF LANGUAGE & INTERNATIONAL STUDIES FACULTY OF POST – GRADUATE STUDIES ***************** ĐẶNG THỊ THÙY VÂN A STUDY ON THE FORMS AND MEANINGS OF LEXICAL VERB ‘ GET ’ AND VIETNAMESE EQUIVALENTS ( NGHIÊN CỨU VỀ HÌNH THÁI VÀ NGỮ NGHĨ A CỦA ĐỘNG TỪ ‘ GET ’ VÀ NHỮNG TƯƠNG ĐƯƠNG TRONG TIẾNG VIỆT ) MINOR M.A. THESIS Field : English Linguistics Code : 602215 iv TABLE OF CONTENTS Page DECLARATION i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ii ABSTRACT iii TABLE OF CONTENTS iv ABBREVIATIONS vii PART I INTRODUCTION 1 1. Rationale of the study 1 2. Aims of the study 2 3. Research questions 2 4. Scope of the study 2 5. Methodology of the study 3 6. Design of the study 3 PART II DEVELOPMENT 4 CHAPTER 1 THEORETICAL BACKGROUND 4 1. Clause patterns and elements 4 1.1. Verb 4 1.2. Subject 5 1.3. Object 5 1.3.1. Direct object 5 1.3.2. Indirect object 5 1.4. Complement 5 1.5. Adverbial 6 2. English Verbs 6 2.1. Forms of verbs 6 2.2. Major grammatical categories 7 2.2.1. Tense and aspect 7 2.2.2. Voice 8 2.2.3. Mood 8 2.3. Classifications of English verbs 9 v 2.3.1. Classified by their functions 9 2.3.2. Classified by their meanings 9 2.3.3. Classified by the number of constituents 9 2.3.4. Classified by their complementation 10 2.4. Verb phrases in English 10 2.4.1. Finite and non-finite verb phrases compared 10 2.4.2. Simple finite verb phrases 11 2.4.3. Complex finite verb phrases 12 2.4.3.1. Intensive verbs 12 2.4.3.2. Transitive verbs 12 2.4.3.3. Monotransitive verbs 12 2.4.3.4. Ditransitive verbs 12 2.4.3.5. Complex transitive verbs 13 3. Vietnamese Verbs 14 3.1. Classification 14 3.2. Verb phrases in Vietnamese 15 4. Contrastive analysis 17 CHAPTER 2 THE OCCURRENCES OF LEXICAL VERB ‘ GET ’ IN ENGLISH WITH VIETNAMESE EQUIVALENTS 18 1. Communicative functions expressed via the lexical verb Get in clause pattern SVO 18 1.1. to receive or obtain something 18 1.2. to fetch something 20 1.3. to catch illness 20 1.4. to use form of transportation 21 1.5. to have revenge on somebody 21 1.6. to buy something 22 1.7. other meanings 22 2. The lexical verb Get in clause pattern SVOO 23 3. The lexical verb Get in clause pattern SVC 24 3.1. Some common adjectives as Complement 24 vi 3.2. Some common participles as Complement 25 4. The lexical verb Get in clause pattern SVOC 27 5. The lexical verb Get in clause pattern SVA 29 6. The lexical verb Get in clause pattern SVOA 30 7. The lexical verb Get in clause pattern SV 30 CHAPTER 3 FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION 32 1. Similarities and differences in the lexical Get in English versus Vietnamese equivalents 32 1.1. Similarities 32 1.2. Differences 33 2. Errors and mistakes commonly committed by Vietnamese beginners of English and some possible solutions 34 1.1. Get as a linking verb ( copula verb ) 34 1.2. Get used with a past participle ( in pattern SVC ) 34 1.3. Get used with a past participle ( in pattern SVOC ) 35 1.4. Got / Gotten alternation 35 PART III CONCLUSION 36 1. Conclusions 36 2. Recommendations for further research 37 REFERENCES 38 APPENDICES APPENDIX A: Notes of usage on some common copula verbs. APPENDIX B: The list of verb phrases which are quite frequently passive in form but active in meaning. APPENDIX C: The list of verb phrases which are often active in form but passive in meaning. APPENDIX D: The comparison of have + O + pp with get + O + pp. APPENDIX E: The use of have / have got / have gotten. vii ABBREVIATIONS A Adverbial A. P Adverb Phrase A dj. Adjective A dj . P Adjective Phrase AE American English BE British English cf. compare C Complement L 1 First language L 2 Foreign language N Noun NP Noun Phrase O Object O d Direct object O i Indirect object Prep. P Prepositional Phrase S Subject V Verb VP Verb Phrase Ø Zero * Unacceptable structure 1 1 PART I INTRODUCTION 1. Rationale of the study Nowadays, English is regarded as the language of modernization and technological advancement all over the world. Learning English is also problematic for native speakers in general and foreign learners in particular because they are affected by their mother tongue during the process of studying grammar, vocabulary, spelling, pronunciation, etc. On the part of grammar, Verbs have always been one of the most complex classes of words, which have most widely used and consequently, have played an important role in any language system so far. Among English verbs, Get is one of the commonest words and is used in many different ways. Conducting the minor thesis entitled “ A Study on The Forms and Meanings of Lexical Verb ‘GET’ and Vietnamese Equivalents ” arose as a result of difficulties that the author face in her daily teaching related to the usage of this verb. The problem she has to wrestle with involves various questions that elementary-level students ask concerning the usage of get in different clause patterns and in different context. For the above reason, this thesis has been made with an attempt to contribute the author‟s own knowledge and experience in dealing with the problems of Vietnamese beginners. It‟s also hopeful that this minor thesis will be of some help to those who are interested in this aspect of English grammar. 2. Aims of the study The thesis is to be focused on: * Different forms and meanings exhibited by Get and Vietnamese equivalents. * Similarities and dissimilarities in terms of meaning between English and Vietnamese. * Common mistakes likely committed by Vietnamese beginners of English and some possible solutions. 3. Research questions To fully achieve these aims, the study should answer the following questions: (i) How is Get exhibited in different clause patterns ? 2 2 (ii) How are they similar and different in terms of meaning between English and Vietnamese ? (iii) What are common mistakes likely committed by Vietnamese beginners of English and how to solve them ? 4. Scope of the study Since the verb get goes largely unnoticed, and yet in conversation it is the single most common lexical verb in any one register, it is viewed as a broad subject to discuss. However, its meaning depends on what kind of words comes after it; such as: noun, pronoun, adjective, adverb, past participle, object, infinitive, etc … I just try to focus on the seven basic clause patterns in which get occurs and its polysemy; therefore, occurrence of get in idiomatic multiword phrases as „get away with‟ or „get rid of ‟ will not be treated much here. 5. Methodology of the study In order to deal with the subject effectively, a flexible combination of methods is employed. - The study is carried out basically through the descriptive and contrastive analysis. The descriptive method is utilized to give in depth and detailed description of forms and meanings of get. Then examples which are provided to illustrate the description will be derived from the grammar materials and reference books written by contemporary influential linguists in English as well as bilingual written publications available in Vietnam. The sources of data also comprise various genres: novels, stories, advertisements, leaflets, notices, signs and the like. Besides, the translational equivalence will be chosen to serve as tertium comparationis for the contrastive analysis. The pair of sentences are juxtaposed in order to show the contrast between the two languages. All the examples in the thesis will be translated word by word so that the features of get will be highlighted. - The supporting methods include qualitative methods, which is used for collecting data and interpretative analysis, which is used to analyze the data collected. The procedures of the study are: 3 3 - To collect relevant data and rearrange systematically. - To synthesize meanings of get from various sources. - To analyze and contrast so that the similarities and differences will be seen through the way this verb get parceled out correspondingly in Vietnamese. 6. Design of the study This minor thesis consists of 3 main parts based on the following arrangement: Part I entitled „INTRODUCTION‟ outlining the background of the study in which brief account of relevant information such as the rationale, aims, research questions, scope, methodology and design of the study are provided. Part II , the „DEVELOPMENT‟ is subdivided into 3 chapters. Chapter 1 supplies the general fundamental and essential theoretical concepts involving the subject under consideration. Chapter 2 presents and describes concrete cases related to the lexical verb get in a contrastive analysis with the Vietnamese translation equivalents, together with the transfer rules identified in formulas. Chapter 3 is about the findings and discussion resulting from the study. Part III is the „CONCLUSION‟ offers the overview of the major conclusions on each of the objectives set forth as tasks assigned to the research, which is followed by some suggestion for further research. REFERENCES come at the end of the paper, closing with Appendix. 4 4 PART II DEVELOPMENT CHAPTER 1 THEORETICAL BACKGROUND 1. Clause elements and clause patterns The clause is the key unit of syntax, capable of occurring independently. The following list presents examples of the basic clause patterns. (1) Type SVC S V intensive C Mary is kind a nurse (2) Type SVA S V intensive A place Mary is here in the house (3) Type SV S V intransitive The child was laughing (4) Type SVO S V monotransitive O d Somebody caught the ball (5) Type SVOC S V complex-transitive O d C o We have proved him wrong a fool (6) Type SVOA S V complex-transitive O d A place I put the plate on the table (7) Type SVOO S V ditransitive O i O d She gives me expensive presents Clause elements are phrases that serve syntactic roles in the clause. According to Quirk et al ( 1972 : 35-40 ), there are five elements of clause ( or sentence) structure which are normally obligatory: Subject (S), Verb (V), Complement (C), Object (O), and Adverbial (A). 1.1. Verb The term Verb (V) stands for a verb phrase in a sentence. The verb phrase ( or „predicator‟ ) is the central element of the clause, because it expresses the action or state to [...]... (1985:306), the verb phrase is defined as the part of a sentence which contains the main verb and also any object(s), complement(s), and adverbial(s) For example, in Tom gave a watch to his son all the sentence except Tom is the verb phrase On the other hand, Biber D et al (2008: 42) states that Verb phrases have a lexical verb or primary verb as their head ( i.e their main verb ) The main verb can stand alone... containing the lexical verb get in the two languages to be detected On the basis of the contrastive analysis done, predictions of certain difficult areas Vietnamese learners may meet when learning these structures are made During the process of comparison, there may happen some cases where they are interpreted by means of communicative translation 18 CHAPTER 2 THE OCCURRENCES OF LEXICAL VERB ‘ GET ’ IN... that „For CA we ought to equate L 1 and L2 forms which, no matter how they diverge superficially, are semantically and pragmatically equivalent‟ As a result, all translation equivalences chosen as TC for the CA in this study are those satisfying James‟ requirements mentioned The formulation of the translationally equivalent sentences allows the similarities and differences of clause patterns containing... forms of verbs, major grammatical categories and classifications of English verbs 2.1 Forms of verbs ( lexical verbs ) As Radndolph Quirk & Sidney Greenbaum (1973:26) put it: „Many English verbs have five forms: the base, the –s form, the past, the –ing participle and the –ed participle.‟ Example of these forms are given in the table below: Symbol Regular verbs Irregular verbs Base form V play steal... completion of an action in a certain time and the use of adverbs of time belongs to the area of sentence structures Besides, such words as bị, chịu, được, … which may be considered a sign of the passive voice by some other grammarians are independent verbs ( động từ độc lập ) 3.1 Classification In each language, there are different ways to classify verbs, so is Vietnamese According to D.Q.Ban and H.V.Thung... complete their meaning, known as obligatory adverbial It can occur with two patterns: copular and complex transitive It usually express place or direction although it can also express time or manner meanings e.g I treated her badly, very badly ~ Your toast is on the table The other kind, optional adverbial, add additional information to the clause, covering a wide variety of meanings, such as place, time,... works hard ~ He worked hard 12 2.4.3 Complex finite verb phrases The complex verb phrase consists of two or more verbs in which the lexical verb follows the auxiliary verb( s) The lexical verb is the verb phrase head As the introduction in 2.3., there are five classes of lexical verbs Different kinds of verbs make different verb phrases and also the range of combinations 2.4.3.1 Intensive verbs The intensive... ) main V whereas the complementation indicates lexical meanings and it is very abundant in quantity with complicated organizations The complementation can be a noun, a pronoun, a verb, an adjective or an adverb Học ăn, học main V e.g Op main V nói ( Study how to eat, how to speak ) Op Bắt học, khiến làm ( force to study and to do work ) main V e.g Op main V Op On the surface, the structure of the verb. .. mainly depend on the major meanings of get Hence, it is similar to that of get in SVO pattern 7 The lexical verb Get in pattern SV With this type, get functions as an intransitive verb However, rarely does it appear alone, as in: [94] Don‟t ask, you don‟t get Đừng hỏi n a, anh không hiểu đâu ( 5:391 ) Often does it occur in phrasal verbs, in which get are combined with adverbial particle ( get at, get. .. which refers to an action, a behavior, an idea or an emotion, a state or a development of a state Unlike English verbs, verbs in Vietnamese do not have the concord with other parts of speech In other words, they are not affected by number, person, gender, mood, voice and tense In addition, when functioning as central component of a verb phrase, verb can combine with other modal auxiliary components before . VÂN A STUDY ON THE FORMS AND MEANINGS OF LEXICAL VERB ‘ GET ’ AND VIETNAMESE EQUIVALENTS ( NGHIÊN CỨU VỀ HÌNH THÁI VÀ NGỮ NGHĨ A C A ĐỘNG TỪ ‘ GET ’ VÀ NHỮNG TƯƠNG ĐƯƠNG TRONG TIẾNG VIỆT. FORMS AND MEANINGS OF LEXICAL VERB ‘ GET ’ AND VIETNAMESE EQUIVALENTS ( NGHIÊN CỨU VỀ HÌNH THÁI VÀ NGỮ NGHĨ A C A ĐỘNG TỪ ‘ GET ’ VÀ NHỮNG TƯƠNG ĐƯƠNG TRONG TIẾNG VIỆT ) MINOR M .A. THESIS. Conducting the minor thesis entitled “ A Study on The Forms and Meanings of Lexical Verb GET and Vietnamese Equivalents ” arose as a result of difficulties that the author face in her daily
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Xem thêm: a study on the forms and meanings of lexical verb get and vietnamese equivalents nghiên cứu hình thái và ngữ nghĩa của động từ get và những tương đương trong tiếng việt, a study on the forms and meanings of lexical verb get and vietnamese equivalents nghiên cứu hình thái và ngữ nghĩa của động từ get và những tương đương trong tiếng việt, a study on the forms and meanings of lexical verb get and vietnamese equivalents nghiên cứu hình thái và ngữ nghĩa của động từ get và những tương đương trong tiếng việt, 1. Clause elements and clause patterns, Errors and mistakes commonly committed by Vietnamese beginners of English and possible solutions to the problems.

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