Fundamentals of Linux Final

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Fundamentals of Linux Final SaigonCTT , ,SSP 123 Truong Dinh street District 3 HochiMinh CityVietnamFundamentals of LinuxLEU-118Student GuideLinux Computing Environment 1Objectives , :Upon completion of this module you should be able to• List the four main components of a computer• Describe the three main components of the Linux operating system• Identify the three most common shells in the Linux system• , ,Distinguish between the multitasking multiuser and distributed processing capabilities of the Linux systemDiscussion – Several different components work together to make up a computer system .and a networked environment What are some of these components?Introduction to Linux & .The UNIX operating system was originally developed at AT T Bell Labs in 1969 .It was created as a tool set by programmers for programmers The early source code .was made available to universities all over the country Programmers at the University of California at Berkeley made significant modifications to the original ( ) .source code and called it BSD Berkeley Software Distribution UNIX They sent this new version of the UNIX environment to other programmers around , .the country who then added tools and code as they saw fit Possibly the most important advance made to the software by the programmers at Berkeley was the addition of networking software which allowed the operating system to function in ( ).a local area network LAN - , ,Linux is a UNIX like operting system developed by Linus Torvalds a student at ,Helsinki University in Finland .in 1991 I , ,t is a modern flexible mature and free . ,operating system Although it started life on the Intel platform it has since been , , ,ported to many other platforms such as Amiga DEC Alpha Apple Power PC Sun , . :workstations and others Linux boasts many other features• Multitasking . .Linux is a true preemptive multitasking operating system All processes run independently of each other and leave processor management to .the kernel• Symmetrical multiprocessing . .Linux currently scales up to 16 processors• Networking . .Linux supports a multitude of networking protocols• Multiuser . .Linux handles multiple users at one time logged on to a machine• Advanced memory management . Traditional UNIX systems use swapping to ,manage memory where the entire memory structure of a program is written to . ,disk when the system is running low on memory Linux uses paging a method that intelligently allocates memory when system memory is running low by .prioritizing memory tasks• POSIX support . -POSIX defines a minimum interface for UNIX type . . .operating systems Linux currently supports POSIX 1003 1 This ensures that - .POSIX compliant UNIX programs will port easily to Linux• Multiple file systems . ,Linux supports several different file system formats / , / , .including DOS Windows OS 2 and Novell formats This makes .interoperability a reality between operating systemsMain Components of a Computer The four main components of a computer are the r andom a ccess m ( ),emory RAM the c entral p rocessing u ( ),nit CPU the i /nput o ( / ),utput I O and the hard disk or other .mass storage deviceFigure 1-1 Main Components of a ComputerRandom Access Memory (RAM) , ,Random access memory located on the memory board is the main ,computer memory often referred to as primary memory . Primary memory is .that part of memory where the activity of the running system takes place , “ ,”When you hear My system has 16 Mbytes of memory the speaker is .talking about primary memory or RAM A software program resides on the hard disk . ,When it is activated an image .or copy of that program is loaded into RAM .Images in RAM remain as long as they are needed Once these images are , .no longer required they are overwritten by other images If power is lost or , .the system is rebooted images in RAM disappearCentral Processing Unit (CPU) The central processing unit is the computer logic chip that executes ( )instructions processes received from the primary computer memory ( ). .RAM These instructions are stored in binary languageInput/Output (I/O) / ( )The input output reads input from a device such as your keyboard into , . ,memory or it writes output from memory to a device For example the ; ,keyboard and the mouse are the primary user input devices the monitor , .printer and tape drive are the primary output devicesHard Disk (or Other Forms of Mass Storage) .The hard disk is a magnetic storage device where information is stored All , ( ), .files including applications utilities are stored on a hard diskThe Linux Distributed Computing Solution .The Linux computing environment is based on the UNIX operating system –Versions of the UNIX operating system run on many different computer systems , ( ), .microcomputers personal computers PCs and mainframes .The operating system is a set of programs that manages all computer operations It ,also provides a link between the user and system resources converting requests / .which come from the mouse and or keyboard into computer operations :There are three main parts of the operating system• Kernel• Shell• File systemKernel The kernel .is the core of the Linux computing environment It performs the :following functions The kernel is an executable file that gets loaded into memory when your system boots. It is called /kernel/genunix .• , ,Manages devices memory and processes• ( )Controls the functions transmission of information between the system ( )programs utilities and the system hardware• :Manages functions such aso Swap space – A reserved part of the disk for the kernel to use during processingo Daemons – Processes that perform particular system tasks and monitor disks and executiono File systems – , ,A hierarchy of directories subdirectories and filesShell A shell .is an interface between the user and the kernel It acts as an interpreter or . , ,translator In other words the shell accepts commands issued by you interprets , .these commands and executes the appropriate programs Three shells are available :in the Linux environment• Bourne shell ($) – .The default shell for the Linux computing environment & .The Bourne shell was developed for the AT T System V 2 UNIX . .environment This shell does not have aliasing or history capabilities It is .typically used by system administrators• Korn shell ($) – .A superset of the Bourne shell It has many of the Bourne .shell features plus added features such as aliasing and history This is the .industry standard for normal system users• C shell (%) – .A shell based on the C programming language Like ,the Korn shell it has additional features such as aliasing and . ’ ,history C shell was developed by Sun s Bill Joy for programmers .but is used with increasing frequency by normal system usersThe File System ,The Linux computing environment file structure is a hierarchy of directories , .subdirectories and files that are grouped together for a specific purpose• Directory – . ,A location for other files and directories The Linux file system or directory structure, enables you to create files and directories accessed .through a hierarchy of directories• Subdirectory – . ,Any directory below another directory For example some of the subdirectories under the root (/) directory are/usr , /etc, and /kernel.root ( / )usr opt dev etc home varbin sbin lib user1 user2 user3Figure 1-4 Common Linux Subdirectories The file system is integrated with the kernel to provide an organizational structure .to store your data The topmost directory is called the root .directory It is the starting point of the - .file system hierarchy The root (directory / ) is required for the operating system ( ,to function and contains critical systems files such as the kernel called /kernel/genunix). The /usr ,directory contains executable commands system administration , .utilities and library routines The /opt ’ .directory contains Linux s unbundled software applications The /etc .directory contains system administration files The /home ’ .directory contains the user s home directory Depending on how the ,system has been set up by the administrator the home directories may instead be found in /export/home. The /dev .directory contains files which are pointers to device names ,The file system organizes data in a hierarchical structure of directories .similar to the way a filing cabinet stores information . .Directories are like file drawers Subdirectories are similar to folders Files are like .the individual pages of information contained in the folder :The Linux operating system contains many different kinds of files• Directories• ( )Plain ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange documents• ( , , )Applications databases word processing programs and spreadsheets• Executable programsMain Capabilities of the Operating System :The Linux computing environment was designed for• –Multitasking Enables the kernel to keep track of several processes ,simultaneously which allows more than one tool or application to be used at a time A user can run a program (like a spreadsheet) and edit a document using a word processor at the same time.• –Multiuser capability Enables more than one user to access the same system resources• –Distributed processing Enables the use of resources across the networkMain Capabilities of the Common Desktop Environment (CDE) - ( )CDE is Motif based and users of other UNIX and personal computer PC desktops ;should be comfortable using CDE many of the features are common to other .desktop environments ( )The Common Desktop Environment CDE• ( )Is a graphical user interface GUI between the user and the operating system• -Provides built in menus for users to select and run utilities and programs without using Linux environment commands• Enables users to control multiple documents or applications on the screen at the same time[...]... during any aspects of this exercise.• Conclusions • Multitasking . .Linux is a true preemptive multitasking operating system All processes run independently of each other and leave processor management to .the kernel• Symmetrical multiprocessing . .Linux currently scales up to 16 processors• Networking . .Linux supports a multitude of networking protocols• Multiuser . .Linux handles multiple... ensures that - .POSIX compliant UNIX programs will port easily to Linux • Multiple file systems . ,Linux supports several different file system formats / , / , .including DOS Windows OS 2 and Novell formats This makes .interoperability a reality between operating systemsMain Components of a Computer The four main components of a computer are the r andom a ccess m ( ),emory RAM the c entral... than one user to access the same system resources• –Distributed processing Enables the use of resources across the networkMain Capabilities of the Common Desktop Environment (CDE) - ( )CDE is Motif based and users of other UNIX and personal computer PC desktops ;should be comfortable using CDE many of the features are common to other .desktop environments ( )The Common Desktop Environment... ,The file system organizes data in a hierarchical structure of directories .similar to the way a filing cabinet stores information . .Directories are like file drawers Subdirectories are similar to folders Files are like .the individual pages of information contained in the folder :The Linux operating system contains many different kinds of files• Directories• ( )Plain ASCII American Standard... the primary output devicesHard Disk (or Other Forms of Mass Storage) .The hard disk is a magnetic storage device where information is stored All , ( ), .files including applications utilities are stored on a hard diskThe Linux Distributed Computing Solution .The Linux computing environment is based on the UNIX operating system –Versions of the UNIX operating system run on many different computer... mainframes .The operating system is a set of programs that manages all computer operations It ,also provides a link between the user and system resources converting requests / .which come from the mouse and or keyboard into computer operations :There are three main parts of the operating system• Kernel• Shell• File systemKernel The kernel .is the core of the Linux computing environment It performs... articulate any conclusions they reached as a result of this exerciseexperience.• Applications Explore with students how they might apply what they learned in this exercise tosituations at their workplace.Exercise Solutions . .1 Identify the four main components of a computerMemory, CPU, I/O, and hard disk . .2 Describe the three main functions of the kernelIt manages all computer operations,... discussion, then just highlight the key concepts students should have learned from the lab exercise.• Experiences SaigonCTT , ,SSP 123 Truong Dinh street District 3 HochiMinh CityVietnam Fundamentals of Linux LEU-118Student Guide Central Processing Unit (CPU) The central processing unit is the computer logic chip that executes ( )instructions processes received from the primary computer... c entral p rocessing u ( ),nit CPU the i /nput o ( / ),utput I O and the hard disk or other .mass storage device Main Capabilities of the Operating System :The Linux computing environment was designed for• –Multitasking Enables the kernel to keep track of several processes ,simultaneously which allows more than one tool or application to be used at a time A user can run a program (like... ,manage memory where the entire memory structure of a program is written to . ,disk when the system is running low on memory Linux uses paging a method that intelligently allocates memory when system memory is running low by .prioritizing memory tasks• POSIX support . -POSIX defines a minimum interface for UNIX type . . .operating systems Linux currently supports POSIX 1003 1 This ensures . HochiMinh CityVietnamFundamentals of LinuxLEU-118Student Guide Linux Computing Environment 1Objectives , :Upon completion of this module you. features of the Linux UNIX environment set it apart from a typical standalone PC environment? What would some of the benefits of these
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