# bài giảng chapter 6 bonds and their valuation

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6 - 1 CHAPTER 6 Bonds and Their Valuation  Key features of bonds  Bond valuation  Measuring yield  Assessing risk 6 - 2 Key Features of a Bond 1. Par value: Face amount; paid at maturity. Assume \$1,000. 2. Coupon interest rate: Stated interest rate. Multiply by par value to get dollars of interest. Generally fixed. (More…) 6 - 3 3. Maturity: Years until bond must be repaid. Declines. 4. Issue date: Date when bond was issued. 5. Default risk: Risk that issuer will not make interest or principal payments. 6 - 4 How does adding a call provision affect a bond?  Issuer can refund if rates decline. That helps the issuer but hurts the investor.  Therefore, borrowers are willing to pay more, and lenders require more, on callable bonds.  Most bonds have a deferred call and a declining call premium. 6 - 5 What’s a sinking fund?  Provision to pay off a loan over its life rather than all at maturity.  Similar to amortization on a term loan.  Reduces risk to investor, shortens average maturity.  But not good for investors if rates decline after issuance. 6 - 6 1. Call x% at par per year for sinking fund purposes. 2. Buy bonds on open market. Company would call if r d is below the coupon rate and bond sells at a premium. Use open market purchase if r d is above coupon rate and bond sells at a discount. Sinking funds are generally handled in 2 ways 6 - 7 Financial Asset Valuation ( ) ( ) ( ) PV = CF 1+ r + CF 1+r 1 n 1 2 2 1 CF r n . 0 1 2 n r CF 1 CF n CF 2 Value + + + 6 - 8  The discount rate (r i ) is the opportunity cost of capital, i.e., the rate that could be earned on alternative investments of equal risk. r i = r * + IP + LP + MRP + DRP for debt securities. 6 - 9 What’s the value of a 10-year, 10% coupon bond if r d = 10%? ( ) ( ) V r B d = \$100 \$1,000 1 1 10 10 . . . + \$100 1 + r d 100 100 0 1 2 10 10% 100 + 1,000 V = ? = \$90.91 + . . . + \$38.55 + \$385.54 = \$1,000. ++ + 1 r+ ( )d 6 - 10 10 10 100 1000 N I/YR PV PMT FV -1,000 The bond consists of a 10-year, 10% annuity of \$100/year plus a \$1,000 lump sum at t = 10: \$ 614.46 385.54 \$1,000.00 PV annuity PV maturity value Value of bond = = = INPUTS OUTPUT [...]... yld gains yld 6 - 22 Find current yield and capital gains yield for a 9%, 10-year bond when the bond sells for \$887 and YTM = 10.91% \$90 Current yield = \$887 = 0.1015 = 10.15% 6 - 23 YTM = Current yield + Capital gains yield Cap gains yield = YTM - Current yield = 10.91% - 10.15% = 0. 76% Could also find values in Years 1 and 2, get difference, and divide by value in Year 1 Same answer 6 - 24 What’s... \$1,3 86 10% 1,000 4.8% 15% 9 56 4.4% 1,000 38 .6% 749 25.1% 6 - 25 Value 1,500 10-year 1-year 1,000 500 rd 0 0% 5% 10% 15% 6 - 26 What is reinvestment rate risk? The risk that CFs will have to be reinvested in the future at lower rates, reducing income Illustration: Suppose you just won \$500,000 playing the lottery You’ll invest the money and live off the interest You buy a 1-year bond with a YTM of 10% 6. .. \$50,000 to \$15,000 Had you bought 30-year bonds, income would have remained constant 6 - 28  Long-term bonds: High interest rate risk, low reinvestment rate risk  Short-term bonds: Low interest rate risk, high reinvestment rate risk  Nothing is riskless! 6 - 29 True or False: “All 10-year bonds have the same price and reinvestment rate risk.” False! Low coupon bonds have less reinvestment rate risk... than high coupon bonds 6 - 30 Semiannual Bonds 1 Multiply years by 2 to get periods = 2n 2 Divide nominal rate by 2 to get periodic rate = rd/2 3 Divide annual INT by 2 to get PMT = INT/2 INPUTS OUTPUT 2n rd/2 OK INT/2 OK N I/YR PV PMT FV 6 - 31 Find the value of 10-year, 10% coupon, semiannual bond if rd = 13% 2(10) INPUTS 20 N OUTPUT 13/2 6. 5 I/YR PV -834.72 100/2 50 PMT 1000 FV 6 - 32 Spreadsheet... FV 6 - 35  At a price of \$984.80, the annual and semiannual bonds would be in equilibrium, because investors would earn EFF% = 10.25% on either bond 6 - 36 A 10-year, 10% semiannual coupon, \$1,000 par value bond is selling for \$1,135.90 with an 8% yield to maturity It can be called after 5 years at \$1,050 What’s the bond’s nominal yield to call (YTC)? INPUTS OUTPUT 10 N -1135.9 50 I/YR PV PMT 3. 765 ...  A par bond stays at \$1,000 if rd remains constant 6 - 16 What’s “yield to maturity”?  YTM is the rate of return earned on a bond held to maturity Also called “promised yield.” 6 - 17 What’s the YTM on a 10-year, 9% annual coupon, \$1,000 par value bond that sells for \$887? 0 PV1 PV10 PVM 887 rd=? 1 90 9 90 10 90 1,000 Find rd that “works”! 6 - 18 Find rd VB = INT + 1 + (1 + r d ) 90 887 = 1.. .6 - 11 What would happen if expected inflation rose by 3%, causing r = 13%? INPUTS OUTPUT 10 N 13 I/YR PV -837.21 100 PMT 1000 FV When rd rises, above the coupon rate, the bond’s value falls below par, so it sells at a discount 6 - 12 What would happen if inflation fell, and rd declined to 7%? INPUTS OUTPUT 10 N 7 I/YR PV -1,210.71 100 PMT 1000 FV If coupon rate > rd, price rises above par, and. .. Functions for Bond Valuation  See Ch 06 Mini Case.xls for details PRICE YIELD 6 - 33 You could buy, for \$1,000, either a 10%, 10-year, annual payment bond or an equally risky 10%, 10-year semiannual bond Which would you prefer? The semiannual bond’s EFF% is: m 2  1 + iNom  − 1 =  1 + 0.10 − 1 = 10.25% EFF % =         m 2 10.25% > 10% EFF% on annual bond, so buy semiannual bond 6 - 34 If \$1,000... rises above par, and bond sells at a premium 6 - 13 Suppose the bond was issued 20 years ago and now has 10 years to maturity What would happen to its value over time if the required rate of return remained at 10%, or at 13%, or at 7%? 6 - 14 Bond Value (\$) rd = 7% 1,372 1,211 rd = 10% 1,000 M 837 rd = 13% 775 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Years remaining to Maturity 6 - 15  At maturity, the value of any bond... 90 PMT 1000 FV 6 - 19  If coupon rate < rd, bond sells at a discount  If coupon rate = rd, bond sells at its par value  If coupon rate > rd, bond sells at a premium  If rd rises, price falls  Price = par at maturity 6 - 20 Find YTM if price were \$1,134.20 INPUTS OUTPUT 10 N I/YR 7.08 -1134.2 90 PV PMT 1000 FV Sells at a premium Because coupon = 9% > rd = 7.08%, bond’s value > par 6 - 21 Definitions . 6 - 1 CHAPTER 6 Bonds and Their Valuation  Key features of bonds  Bond valuation  Measuring yield  Assessing risk 6 - 2 Key Features of a Bond 1. Par value:. investor.  Therefore, borrowers are willing to pay more, and lenders require more, on callable bonds.  Most bonds have a deferred call and a declining call premium. 6 - 5 What’s a sinking fund?  Provision. decline after issuance. 6 - 6 1. Call x% at par per year for sinking fund purposes. 2. Buy bonds on open market. Company would call if r d is below the coupon rate and bond sells at a premium.
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