Tiếng Anh thư tín thương mại

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Business Correspondence in English -1- Preface 4 Chapter One: THE STYLE OF THE LANGUAGE OF BUSINESS LETTERS 5 1.1 The language style 5 1.1.1 Simplicity 5 1.1.2 Courtesy 5 1.1.3 Clarity and accuracy 6 1.1.4 Brevity 6 1.1.5 Pertinence (Logic) 6 1.2 Example 8 1.3 Exercises 9 Chapter Two: PARTS OF A BUSINESS LETTER 11 2.1 Essential parts of a letter 11 2.1.2 References 12 2.1.3 Date 12 2.1.4 Inside address (Addressee / Recipient) 12 2.1.5 Salutations 13 2.1.6 Subject titles 13 2.1.7 Letter Body 13 2.1.8 Complimentary close/closure 13 2.1.9 Signature 14 2.1.10 ‘Per pro’ 14 2.1.11 Enclosures 14 2.2 Addressing envelope 15 2.3 Letter formats 16 2.3.1 Full-blocked format 16 2.3.2 Blocked format 17 2.3.3 Semi-blocked or modified blocked format (Indented layout) 18 Chapter Three: ENQUIRIES 19 3.1 Content requirements 19 3.2 Phraseology 19 3.2.1 Opening 19 3.2.2 Body 21 3.2.3 Closing 22 3.3 Points to remember 22 3.4 Examples 23 3.4.1 Enquiry 23 3.4.2 Enquiry with proposed terms and conditions 23 3.5 Exercises 25 Chapter Four: REPLIES TO ENQUIRIES & QUOTATIONS 28 4.1 Phraseology 29 4.1.1 Opening 29 4.1.2 Body 29 4.1.3 Closing 31 4.2 Quotations in tabulated forms 32 4.3 Examples 35 4.3.1 Reply to an enquiry about chinaware. 35 4.3.2 Reply to enquiry, giving concessions 36 4.4 Points to remember 36 4.5 Exercises 37 Business Correspondence in English -2- Chapter Five: OFFERS 40 5.1 What is an offer 40 5.2 Types of offers 40 5.2.1 Firm offers 40 5.2.2 Free offers 41 5.3 Phraseology 41 5.3.1 Opening 41 5.3.2 Body 41 5.3.3 Closing 42 5.4 Examples of offers 44 5.5 Offers on printed form with covering letters 46 5.6 Exercises 48 Chapter Six: ORDERS AND THEIR FULFILMENT 54 6.1 Orders by letter 54 6.2 Order forms with covering letters 59 6.2.1 Covering letter 60 6.2.2 Sample order forms with covering letters 62 6.3 Acknowledging orders and sales confirmation 64 6.4 Advice of despatch 68 6.5 Delays in delivery 74 6.6 Turning down an order 76 6.7 Seller’s counter-offer 80 6.8 Acknowledging safe delivery 81 6.9 Exercises 81 Chapter Seven: PAYMENTS IN INTERNATIONAL TRADE 88 7.1 International bankers’ draft (banker’s draft) 88 7.2 Banker’s transfer (Bank transfer): 89 7.3 Bills of exchange 89 7.3.1 Notification of B/E being sent 91 7.3.2 Example of Bill of Exchange 92 7.3.3 Letter advising the despatch of a sight draft 93 7.3.4 Request to a bank to forward a bill 94 7.3.5 Request to a bank to accept a bill 94 7.3.6 Non-payment of a bill 96 7.4 Bankers’ commercial credits (Documentary credit) 97 7.4.1 Letter from exporter to the agents bank 98 7.4.2 Letter from the exporter to the importer 99 7.4.3 Payment by L/C 100 7.4.4 Stages of effecting payment by L/C 101 7.5 Promissory notes 105 7.6 Exercises 106 Chapter Eight: COMPLAINTS AND CLAIMS 117 8.1 When to write a claim? 117 8.2 Guidance for writing claims 118 8.3 The language of complaints 118 8.4 What to write in a letter of complaint? 119 8.4.1 Opening 119 8.4.2 Body 119 8.4.3. Ending 120 8.5 Common settlements 120 Business Correspondence in English -3- 8.6 Favourable responses to complaints and claims 121 8.6.1 Opening 121 8.6.2 Saying that you are investigating the case 121 8.6.3 Explaining the mistakes 121 8.7 Specimen letters of complaints and replies 122 8.8 Further examples of complaints 130 8.9 A sample case 134 8.10 Additional reading 138 8.11 Exercises 140 Chapter Nine: ELECTRONIC CORRESPONDENCE 147 9.1 Faxes 147 9.1.1 Specimen faxes 147 9.2 Electronic mail (email) 149 9.3 Telegrames and cables 155 9.3.1 Layouts of telegrams and cables 155 9.3.2 The word ‘stop’ 156 9.3.3 The word ‘repeat’ 156 9.3.4 Abbreviations 156 9.3.5 Brevity but Clarity 156 9.3.6 Words not figures 157 9.3.7 Specimen telegrams 157 9.4 Telexes 157 9.4.1 Layout of telexes 157 9.4.2 Operating the telex 158 9.4.3 Common abbreviations 158 9.4.4 Telex details 160 9.4.5 Specimen telexes 160 9.5 Points to remember 161 Chapter Ten: PERSONNEL 163 10.1 Letter of application 163 10.1.1 Style of application 163 10.1.2 Points of guidance 163 10.1.3 Checklist 163 10.1.4 Phraseology 164 10.1.5 Examples of letter of application 166 10. 2 References (favourable) 173 10.2.1 Letter taking up a reference 173 10.2.2 Favourable reply 173 10.2.3 Alternative reply 174 10.2.4 Applicant‘s ‘thank you’ letter 174 10.2.5 Enumerated enquiry for a reference 175 10.3 References (unfavourable) 176 10.3.1Unfavourable reference 176 10.3.1Alternative unfavourable reference 176 10.4 Testimonials 177 10.4.1 Formal testimonial for Secretary 178 10.4.2 Favourable formal testimonial 179 REFERENCES 180 Business Correspondence in English -4- Preface The ability to use the English language in a simple, yet accurate manner in business transactions is undoubtedly the goal which students of business try to attain and it is with which objective in mind this book has been compiled. The book may also be effective as a reference book for those in the foreign trade service upon whom English business correspondence is incumbent and a variety of readers whose interest might be different. In the authors’ experience, the important skill in the study of commercial correspondence is the reproduction of the examples from learners’ memory. This does not mean that the task should merely consist of memorizing business terms involved; in fact, it requires a thorough grasp of the subject matter and the forms of expressions in a variety of letters. If this process is strictly adhered to, students will shortly find themselves in a position to develop their power of initiative and self- confidence. In the compilation of this book, focus on the form of letters and letters on business situations is given. Because of limitation of time and other resources, letters on social situations are, regretfully, not incorporated in this book. Given the actual work which students are later supposed to undertake, special attention is also paid to the translation and simulation tasks. In broader sense, the tasks are destined to be some sort of practical work, plus a certain amount of creative work. A wide range of examples is incorporated in order to meet the purpose of the book. In view of the compilers’ limited knowledge, shortcomings and mistakes are due to appears at various points of the book. Any suggestions, corrections, comments and improvements from our fellow teachers as well as students will, therefore, be appreciated. Le Manh Tien, MA in TESOL Le Tuyet Van, MA in TESOL Business Correspondence in English -5-  Chapter One: THE STYLE OF THE LANGUAGE OF BUSINESS LETTERS The importance of writing good business letters The exchanging of business letters is the most popular and effective means of communications used by businesses to keep in touch with their customers. Writing satisfactory correspondence is essentially important because this surely creates a pleasing impression about your firm. You may gain or lose your customers through the way you produce your letters. Good letters usually help readers form goodwill and generate co-operation so they contribute to the success of a transaction. Communications through letters is convenient in international trade because sellers and buyers are at remote distances. They cannot usually travel to meet one another. Besides, communicating by the telephone is also easy but it does not provide records in writing. Moreover, spoken details can be forgotten or denied later on. If companies use letters, written records can be accessed when necessary to recall past information. 1.1 THE LANGUAGE STYLE 1.1.1 Simplicity Evidence of simplicity  Use plain language which is easily to be understood. Write simply and naturally. (i.e. you should write as you say in a regular manner, avoid using long and roundabout sentences or phrases).  Avoid using stilted, stiff, pompous language or the use of clicheù (overused expressions).  Try not to use too complicated structures.  Use simple words instead of jargons, abbreviations especially when writing to those who are unfamiliar with these technical terms.  Avoid exaggerations.  Do not try to sound overly businesslike.  Avoid using such words or expressions as: ‘herewith’, ‘herein’, ‘therein’, ‘whereof’, etc. because they sound too formal and contribute nothing to the content of the letter. These are only fit in contracts, agreements or legal documents.  Write grammatically. 1.1.2 Courtesy Evidence of courtesy  Use good stationery with letterhead and good presentation, standard letter formats.  Use complex sentences joined by conjunctions rather than simple sentences because separate short sentences sound curt. Avoid being too short and simple; otherwise it sounds rude and abrupt.  Use good styles by avoiding sarcastic, insulting style. Avoid as far as possible attacking too directly, even when you have to write about most frustrating situations (e.g. non- payment of an invoice, late delivery, etc.).  Use full forms rather than abbreviated forms. (e.g. ‘I’d…’ and ‘I would/had…’) Except for abbreviations that are internationally accepted, such as FAS, Ltd, B/L, etc. Business Correspondence in English -6-  Use passive and active tactfully.  Avoid inappropriate vocabulary, idioms, phrasal verbs, short forms. (It is likely to lead to over-familiarity, confusions, and misunderstanding).  Avoid curiosity - Do not ask for what you are not entitled to know, or something confidential.  Draft and edit your letter. Check your letter carefully for spelling and grammar mistakes before sending out your letter.  See to it that goodwill, feelings, favourable impression are built and sustained.  Be reasonable, especially with requests.  Use the ‘You approach’ and ‘I approach’ tactfully. 1.1.3 Clarity and accuracy Here are some hints for you to consider  Be careful with figures, decimal points, measurement units, sums of money, and monetary units of different countries. The following examples show the difference across countries: 1 billion: 1,000,000,000,000 (one million millions) in the UK; 1,000,000,000 (one thousand millions) in the USA. 1 gallon: 4.546 litres in the UK ; 3.78 litres in the USA 1 ton: 2240 pounds (lb) or 1016 kg in the UK (long ton); 2000 pounds (lb) or 907.2 kg in the USA (short ton) 1 metric ton (also tonne – abbreviated as MT): 1,000 kg. 1 mile: 1609 metres or 1760 yards on land, but a nautical mile (also sea mile) – a unit for measuring distance at sea –is equal to 1852 metres.  Be careful with prepositions. (E.g.: ‘come to…’ or ‘come up …’, ‘concerned about…’ and ‘concerned with …’  Be careful with names, titles, addresses (avoid spelling mistakes e.g. Mr John or Mr. Jones)  Be careful when writing the date. Otherwise, disputes may arise when there are confusions about the dates.  Be careful with references, catalogue numbers, and prices.  Avoid uncommon abbreviations. Who may know O.N.O (‘or the nearest offer’)?  Express your ideas, opinions explicitly, overtly and straightforwardly. 1.1.4 Brevity Evidence of brevity  Be no longer than is absolutely essential; you should not enter into details unnecessarily.  Use shorter phrases where possible instead of long ones.  Avoid redundancies. (e.g.: ‘discuss about’; ‘enter into’; ‘co-operate together’, ‘enclose with this letter’ (in these expressions ‘about’, ‘into’, ‘together’ … are redundant).  Write to the point; do not refer to things already known.  Write directly.  Write logically.  Enclose literature (leaflets, brochures, price lists, quotations where possible) to exactly support your ideas without having to give lengthy, but sometimes vague, descriptions of the goods and services. 1.1.5 Pertinence (Logic) Your letter must be fit to serve the purpose for which it has been written, to the point and it should manifest a thorough knowledge of the subject with which it purports to deal. Thus, a reply to an enquiry shouldn’t degenerate into sort of propaganda pamphlet, and an offer into a Business Correspondence in English -7- publicity material. Why should we give lengthy explanations about our goods or products when they can be judged from the stated specifications and a good bargain from the offered terms of trade? Or simply by the enclosure of catalogues, pattern cards and samples? Evidence of pertinence  Ideas flow in a logical order (e.g. reasons for writing, then comes the main features, and lastly conclusions are a good and logical sequence). You need to plan the points you want to make in advance.  Always think of the main objectives to be achieved (sales letters, offers, matters concerning payments, claims, etc.)  There is the right amount of information.  There must be logical connection between what is going to be said with what you have previously said (i.e. do not jump around making a statement or switch to another subject suddenly and the come back to what you said a few sentences or paragraphs before).  Employ connective devices (i.e discourse markers e.g. ‘thus’, ‘consequently’, ‘moreover’, ‘firstly’, ‘secondly’, ‘finally’, ‘for the conclusion’, ‘on the one (other) hand’ etc.).  Avoid using archaic styles, words and expressions. (e.g. ‘We remain’) Business Correspondence in English -8- 1.2 EXAMPLE This is a response to an enquiry and it shows the logical sequence and the clear division of ideas. Each part pursuits a particular purpose. Opening: Acknowledgement/ Thanks for the enquiry. Dear Ms. Oner We are writing to thank you for your interest in our cutting machine MD-02 expressed in you letter dated 1st August, 20__, which we received this morning. Body: feedback to customer’s requirements/ queries/inclusion of favourable comments We are enclosing our latest catalogue in which the item you enquired about is featured on pp 20-1. Also you will find the enclosed current price list, giving details of our prices, discounts and other terms of delivery. We can safely claim that our products are of good quality, attractive designs and economically priced. The fact that we have received repeat orders from our customers world-wide – we can supply you with a trade reference if requested – serves as evidence of our claim. Conclusion: encouragement of further enquiries or business/goodwill If you have any further questions, then we are happy to help and we look forward to a happy business relationship with you. Yours sincerely J. Baker James Baker Business Correspondence in English -9- 1.3 EXERCISES 1.3.1 Rewrite the following sentences, phrases or words so that the ideas are better expressed: 1. Your letter of the 1st June is at hand and the content has been duly checked. 2. We thank you for your esteemed / honoured/ valued/ kind enquiry of 1st June 3. We acknowledge receipt of your invoice number… 4. We beg to acknowledge receipt of your letter of … 5. Please accept our profuse apologies 6. The unlucky event was due to the sudden demise of Mr. …, our Chief Accountant. 7. Our company is for the time being seeking for someone who can fill in a vacancy of a landscape architect. 8. Send us your catalogue and oblige 9. Attached / enclosed herewith please find our price list. 10. beg, beg acknowledgment 11. favour / communication 12. terminate 13. purchase / acquire / procure 14. utilise 15. in the near future 16. at the present time / for the time being 17. in due time/ in due course 18. in the event of non-receiving your payment 19. and O.N.O 20. AOB 21. TBA 22. We cannot do anything about your problem. 23. This problem would not have happened if you had connected the wires properly 24. Your excavator’s guarantee is up so you have to pay for it to be fixed 25. You’ve probably guessed that 26. You’ll get your money back 27. We are planning to go into property 28. A couple of hundred quid 29. Prices are at rock bottom 30. Prices have gone through the roof 31. Send me your prospectus for this academic year 32. We shall look into the problem 33. I will drop her a line 34. It’s not worth doing business on such small profits 35. It’s most disgraceful (shameful) to delay payment. 36. We both together came to a conclusion that… 37. Thank you for your letter with regard to my trip. 38. We are aware that you are a large company specializing in the manufacture of fertilizers 39. The Christmas is approaching and there will be great demand for consumer goods in Vietnam 40. My business associates, Messrs J. Brown and Hughes Co, Ltd, enquired about drilling machine and they asked me to help them in the purchase of some heavy-duty equipment 41. Once again may we thank you for your enquiry Business Correspondence in English -10- 42. We remain yours truly forever 1.3.2 Rewrite this short letter; make necessary improvements and changes so that the letter will well serve the spirit of courtesy and goodwill Dear Mr.A. John I have already written to you concerning your outstanding debt of US$ 5,000.This should have been cleared three months ago. You don't seem to want to co-operate in paying us and therefore we will sue you if your debt is not cleared within the next ten days. Yours truly . improvements from our fellow teachers as well as students will, therefore, be appreciated. Le Manh Tien, MA in TESOL Le Tuyet Van, MA in TESOL Business Correspondence in English -5-  Chapter
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