lý thuyết và bài tập về mệnh đề quan hệ

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I. Định nghĩa: Mệnh đề quan hệ là mệnh đề phụ được nối với mệnh đề chính bởi các đại từ quan hệ (who, whom, whose, which, that ) hay các trạng từ quan hệ như (where, when, why). Mệnh đề quan hệ đứng ngay đằng sau danh từ, đại từ trong mệnh đề chính để bổ sung ý nghĩa cho danh từ, đại từ ấy,phân biệt danh từ đại từ ấy với các danh từ đại từ khác. Chức năng của nó giống như một tính từ do vậy nó còn được gọi là mệnh đề tính ngữ. RELATIVE CLAUSES I. Định nghĩa: Mệnh đề quan hệ là mệnh đề phụ được nối với mệnh đề chính bởi các đại từ quan hệ (who, whom, whose, which, that ) hay các trạng từ quan hệ như (where, when, why). Mệnh đề quan hệ đứng ngay đằng sau danh từ, đại từ trong mệnh đề chính để bổ sung ý nghĩa cho danh từ, đại từ ấy,phân biệt danh từ đại từ ấy với các danh từ đại từ khác. Chức năng của nó giống như một tính từ do vậy nó còn được gọi là mệnh đề tính ngữ. II. CÁC ĐẠI TỪ QUAN HỆ: 1. Who: -Là đại từ quan hệ chỉ người làm chủ ngữ, đứng sau tiền ngữ chỉ người để làm chủ ngữ cho động từ đứng sau nó Theo sau who là một động từ Eg: The man who is sitting by the fire is my father. ->That is the boy who helped me to find your house. 2. Whom: -Là đại từ quan hệ chỉ người làm tân ngữ, đứng sau tiền ngữ chỉ người để làm tân ngữ cho động từ đứng sau nó Theo sau whom là một chủ ngữ Eg: The woman whom you saw yesterday is my aunt >The boy whom we are looking for is Tom. 3. Which:Là đại từ quan hệ chỉ vật, làm chủ ngữ hoặc tân ngữ cho động từ sau nó. -Theo sau which có thể là một động từ hoặc một chủ ngữ. Eg: This is the book. I like it best.=> This is the book which I like best. The hat is red. It is mine.=> The hat which is red is mine. -Khi which làm tân ngữ, ta có thể lược bỏ which Eg: This is the book I like best . .The dress (which) I bought yesterday is very beautiful. 4. That: Là đại từ quan hệ chỉ cả người lẫn vật, có thể được dùng thay cho Who, Whom, Which trong mệnh đề quan hệ thuộc loại Restricted Clause (Mệnh đề xác định) Eg: That is the book that I like best.=>That is the bicycle that belongs to Tom. My father is the person that I admire most. I can see the girl and her dog that are running in the park. 5. Whose:Là đại từ quan hệ chỉ người, thay cho tính từ sở hữu. Whose cũng được dùng cho of which. -Theo sau Whose luôn là 1 danh từ Eg: The boy is Tom. You borrowed his bicycle yesterday. => The boy whose bicycle you borrowed yesterday is Tom. John found a cat. Its leg was broken. => John found a cat whose leg was broken. III. CÁC TRẠNG TỪ QUAN HỆ 1. When: là trạng từ quan hệ chỉ thời gian, đứng sau tiền ngữ chỉ thời gian, dùng thay cho at, on, in + which, then Eg: May Day is the day when people hold a meeting. (= on which) I’ll never forget the day when I met her. (=on which) That was the time when he managed the company. (= at which) 2. Where: là trạng từ quan hệ chỉ nơi trốn, thay cho at, on, in + which; there) Eg: That is the house where we used to live. (= in which) Do you know the country where I was born? Hanoi is the place where I like to come. 3. Why: là trạng từ quan hệ chỉ lí do, đứng sau tiền ngữ “the reason”, dùng thay cho “for the reason” Eg: Please tell me the reason why you are so sad. (= for which) He told me the reason why he had been absent from class the day before. IV. CÁC LOẠI MỆNH ĐỀ QUAN HỆ: có ba loại mệnh đề quan hệ 1.Mệnh đề quan hệ xác định ( restrictive relative clause) -Mệnh đề quan hệ xác định dùng để bổ nghĩa cho danh từ đứng trước, là bộ phận quan trọng của câu, nếu bỏ đi mệnh đề chính không có nghĩa rõ ràng. Eg The girl who is wearing the blue dress is my sister. The book which I borrowed from you is very interesting. 2. Mệnh đề quan hệ không xác định (non- restrictive relative clause ) -Mệnh đề quan hệ không xác định dùng để bổ nghĩa cho danh từ đứng trước,là phần giải thích thêm, nếu bỏ đi mệnh đề chính vẫn còn nghĩa rõ ràng. -Mệnh đề quan hệ không xác định thường được ngăn với mệnh đề chính bởi các dấu phẩy. Danh từ đứng trước thường là tên riêng hoặc trước các danh từ thường có các từ như: this, that, these, those, my, his her…đứng trước. - Không được dùng that trong mệnh đề không xác định. Eg My father, who is 50 years old, is a doctor. This girl, whom you met yesterday, is my daughter. 3. Mệnh đề quan hệ nối tiếp. - Mệnh đề quan hệ nối tiếp dùng để giải thích cả một câu, trường hợp này chỉ dùng đại từ quan hệ which và dùng dấu phẩy để tách hai mệnh đề. Mệnh đề này luôn đứng ở cuối câu. Eg He admires Mr Brown, which surprises me. Mary tore Tom’s letter, which made him sad. V.DẠNG RÚT GỌN CỦA MỆNH ĐỀ QUAN HỆ: 1.Using participle phrases (sử dụng hiện tại phân từ) - Present participle: Dùng cho các động từ trong mệnh đề quan hệ ở thể chủ động. Ta dùng present participle phrase thay cho mệnh đề đó (bỏ đại từ quan hệ và trợ động từ, đưa động từ chính về nguyên mẫu rồi thêm –ing) The man who is sitting next to you is my uncle. The man sitting to you is my uncle. Do you know the boy who broke the windows last night? Do you know the boy breaking the windows last night? 2.Using past participle: - Past participle: Dùng cho các động từ trong mệnh đề quan hệ ở thể bị động (Bỏ đại từ quan hệ, trợ động từ và bắt đầu cụm từ bằng past participle) Eg1The books which were written by To Hoai are interesting. The books written by To Hoai are interesting. Eg2 The students who were punished by the teacher are lazy. The students punished by the teacher are lazy. Eg3 The house which is being built now belongs to Mr. Pike. The house built now belongs to Mr. Pike. 3. Using “to infinitive” or “infinitive phrase” (for sb to do): Bỏ đại từ quan hệ, bỏ chủ ngữ và trợ động từ, bắt đầu cụm từ bằng “infinitive” a. Dùng khi danh từ đứng trước có các chữ sau đây bổ nghĩa : THE FIRST, THE SECOND,…., THE LAST, THE NEXT, THE ONLY , DẠNG SO SÁNH NHẤT, PURPOSE Bỏ who, which,that ,chủ từ (nếu có ) và modal verb như can ,will thêm to trước động từ Ex: This is the only student who can do the problem. ==> This is the only student who can do the problem ==> This is the only student to do the problem. - The captain was the last man who left the ship => The captain was the last man to leave the ship. b. Động từ là HAVE/HAD - I have much homework that I must do. ==> I have much homework that I must do. ==> I have much homework to do. c. Đầu câu có HERE (BE),THERE (BE) There are six letters which have to be written today. There are six letters to be written today. - Một số động từ khác như need , want v v nói chung là khi ta dịch chỗ to inf. với nghĩa "để" mà nghe suông tai thì có thể dùng được khi Ghi nhớ: Trong phần to inf này các bạn cần nhớ 2 điều sau: - Nếu chủ từ 2 mệnh đề khác nhau thì thêm cụm for sb trước to inf. We have some picture books that children can read. We have some picture books for children to read. Tuy nhiên nếu chủ từ đó là đại từ có nghĩa chung chung như we,you,everyone thì có thể không cần ghi ra. Studying abroad is the wonderful thing that we must think about. Studying abroad is the wonderful thing (for us ) to think about. Nếu trước relative pronoun có giới từ thì phải đem xuống cuối câu. ( đây là lỗi dễ sai nhất). We have a peg on which we can hang our coat. We have a peg to hang our coat on. Ex: English is an important language which we have to master. => English is an important language to master. There is a good restaurant where we can eat good food. => There is a good restaurant to eat good food. That is the hotel where we can stay. => That is the hotel to stay. Here is the form that you must fill in. => Here is the form for you to fill in. 4. Using noun phrases: mệnh đề quan hệ không xách định có thể được rút gọn bằng cách dùng cụm danh từ. Dùng khi mệnh đề tình từ có dạng: S + BE + DANH TỪ /CỤM DANH TỪ/CỤM GIỚI TỪ Cách làm: Bỏ who ,which và be Ex1: Football, which is a popular sport, is very good for health. ==‾潆潆潆 > Football, which is a popular sport, is very good for health. ==> Football, a popular sport, is very good for health. Ex2: Do you like the book which is on the table? ==> Do you like the book on the table? Ex3: George Washington, who was the first presidentof the United States, was a general in the army. George Washington, the first presidentof the United States, was a general in the army. Ex4: We visited Barcelona, which is a city in northern Spain. We visited Barcelona, a city in northern Spain. 5) Mệnh de tính từ có dạng be và tính từ/cụm tính từ: Có 2 công thức rút gọn: Công thức 1: Bỏ who, which to be -> giữ nguyên tính từ phía sau. Diều kiện 1: Nếu phía trước that là đại từ phiếm chỉ như something, anything, anybody Ví dụ: There must be something that is wrong. ( There must be something wrong. Diều kiện 2: Có dấu phẩy phía trước và phải có từ 2 tính từ trở lên Ví dụ: My grandmother, who is old and sick, never goes out of the house. ( My grandmother, old and sick, never goes out of the house. Công thức 2: Những trường hợp còn lại ta đem tính từ lên trước danh từ Ví dụ: My grandmother, who is sick, never goes out of the house. ( My sick grandmother never goes out of the house.) I buy a hat which is very beautiful and fashionable. ( I buy a very beautiful and fashionable hat. * Tuy nhiên nếu cụm tính từ gồm cả danh từ ở trong nó thì ta chỉ còn cách dùng V-ing mà thôi Ví dụ: I met a man who was very good at both English and French. ( I met a man being very good at both English and French.) - Các cụm như tuổi thì sẽ viết lại cả 3 từ và gạch nối giữa chúng (two years old ( two-year- old) Ví dụ: I have a car which has four seats. ( I have a four-seat car) I had a holiday which lasted two days. ( I had a two-day holiday) VI.GiớI Từ ĐI VớI MệNH Đề QUAN Hệ: -Chỉ có hai đại từ quan hệ là Whom và which thường có giới từ đi kèm và giới từ có thể đứng trước các đại từ quan hệ hoặc cuối mệnh đề quan hệ. Eg1 The man about whom you are talking is my brother. The man (whom) you are talking about is my brother. Eg2 The picture at which you are looking is very expensive. The picture ( which) you are looking at is very expensive. Chú ý: -Khi giới từ đứng cuối mệnh đề quan hệ thì ta có thể bỏ đại từ quan hệ và có thể dùng that thay cho whom và which trong mệnh đề quan hệ xác định. -Khi giới từ đứng trước đại từ quan hệ thì ta có không thể bỏ đại từ quan hệ và có không thể dùng that thay cho whom và which . VII.Lưu ý về mệnh đề quan hệ 1. Các đại từ quan hệ có chức năng tân ngữ trong mệnh đề quan hệ xác định đều có thể lược bỏ. Eg Do you know the boy (whom) we met yesterday? That’s the house (which) I have bought. -Tuy nhiên các đại từ quan hệ có chức năng tân ngữ trong mệnh đề quan hệ không xác định không thể lược bỏ. Ex: Mr Tom, whom I spoke on the phone to , is very interested in our plan. 2. Khi danh từ được nói đến là tân ngữ của giới từ, ta có thể đưa giới từ đó đứng trước đại từ quan hệ. Trường hợp này chỉ được dùng Whom và Which Miss Brown, with whom we studied last year, is a very nice teacher. Mr. Cater, to whom I spoke on the phone last night, is very interested in our plan. Fortunately we had a map, without which we would have got lost. 3. Chú ý cách dùng của các cấu trúc mở đầu cho mệnh đề quan hệ: all, most, none, neither, any, either, some, (a)few, both, half, each, one, two, several, many, much, + of which/whom - Tuyệt đối không được dùng đại từ nhân xưng tân ngữ: them, us trong trường hợp này. Ex1: Their sons, both of whom (không Ex1: Their sons, both of whom (không được nói both of them) are working abroad, ring her up every week. Ex2: The buses, most of which were full of passengers, began to pull out. Ex2: The buses, most of which were full of passengers, began to pull out. - What = the thing/ the things that có thÃḠlàm tân ngïḠcho mÇṮh - What = the thing/ the things that có thể làm tân ngữ cho mệnh đề phụ cùng lúc làm chủ ngữ cho mệnh đề chính/ hoặc làm chủ ngữ của cả 2 mệnh đề chính, phụ. Ex1: What we have expected is the result of the test. Ex1: What we have expected is the result of the test. Ex2: What happened to him yesterday might happen to us tomorrow. Ex: Daisy has three brothers, all of whom are teachers. I tried on three pairs of shoes, none of which fitted me. He asked me a lot of questions, most of which I couldn’t answer. Two boys, neither of whom I had seen before, came into my class. They have got two cars, one of which they seldom use. There were a lot of people at the meeting, few of whom I had met before. 4. Các truong hợp sau đây thường phải dùng ‘that’ a. Khi cụm từ đứng trước vừa là danh từ chỉ người và vật He told me about the places and people that he had seen in London b. Sau các tính từ so sánh hơn nhất, the only, the first, the last This is the most interesting film that I’ve ever seen. Moscow is the finest city that she’s ever visited. That is the last letter that he wrote. She was the first person that broke the silence. c. Sau các từ all, only (duy nhất) và very (chính là) All that he can say is this. I bought the only book that they had. You’re the very man that I would like to see. d. Sau các đại từ bất định, đại từ phủ định, đại từ chỉ số lượng: no one, nobody, nothing, anyone, anything, anybody, someone, something, somebody, all, some, any, little, none. He never says anything that is worth listening to. I’ll tell you something that is very interesting. NOTES: Phân BiỆt GiỮa Whose Và Of Which, WHOSE : dùng cả cho người và vật Ex1: This is the book .Its cover is nice Ex1: This is the book .Its cover is nice -> This is the book whose cover is nice . -> This is the book whose cover is nice . -> This is the book the cover of which is nice Ex2: WHOSE : -> This is the book the cover of which is nice Ex2: WHOSE :đứng trứoc danh từ OF WHICH : đứng sau danh từ ( danh từ đó phải thêm THE ) OF WHICH : chỉ dùng cho vật ,không dùng cho người. This is the man . His son is my friend. This is the man . His son is my friend. -> This is the man the son of which is my friend.( sai ) -> This is the man whose son is my friend.( -> This is the man the son of which is my friend.( sai ) -> This is the man whose son is my friend.( đúng) 5. WHOEVER = the person/people who Eg: Whoever gets over 9 marks will receive a gift. = The person who gets over 9 marks will receive a gift. Eg: Whoever gets over 9 marks will receive a gift. = The person who gets over 9 marks will receive a gift. Eg: Whoever gets over 9 marks will receive a gift. = The person who gets over 9 marks will receive a gift. Eg: Whoever gets over 9 marks will receive a gift. = The person who gets over 9 marks will receive a gift. 6. WHATEVER, WHICHEVER (Whatever có thể thay thế bằng what) Whatever = the thing g/things which/that Eg: Whatever you say will be brought to court. = The things that you say will be brought to court. 7. Whichever = the person/people/thing/things that Eg: Whichever of the three girls come home first cooks dinner. = The girl that comes home first cooks dinner. You have pay $4 to whichever of the pens you buy. = You have pay $4 to the pen you buy. EXERCISES ON RELATIVE CLAUSES. I. Combine each pair of sentences using a relative pronoun or relative adverb 1. My father goes swimming everyday. You met him this morning. 2. The man is my father. I respect his opinion most. 3. I thanked the woman. This woman had helped me. 4. I saw a lot of people and horses. They went to market. 5. Tom has three sisters. All of them are married. 6. I recently went back to Paris. I was born in Paris nearly 50 years ago. 7 Do you know the music? It is being played on the radio. 8 You didn’t tell us the reason. We have to cut down our daily expenses for that reason. 9. The day was rainy. She left on that day. 10. I’ve sent him two letters. He has received neither of them. 11. That man is an artist. I don’t remember the man’s name. 12. One of the elephants had only one tusk. We saw these elephants at the zoo. 13. You sent me a present. Thank you very much for it. 14. Is this the style of hair? Your wife wants to have it. 15. 7.05 is the time. My plane arrives then. 16. Max isn’t home yet. That worries me. 17. Do you know the building? The windows of the building are painted green. 18. I don’t know the girl’s nam me. She’s just gone into the hall. 19. Be sure to follow the instructions. They are given at the top of the page. 20. Hoan Kiem lake is a historical place. Its water is always blue. 21. A man phoned and asked for yọu. He spoke with a foreign accent -> The man 22. The Night Manager was written by John le Carre. It's about a man who works in a hotẹl- > John le Carre 23. Our party believes in that idea. I say this from the bottom of my heart > That is an idea 24. Atlanta is a city. The Olympic Games were held in Atlanta > Atlanta 25. Both her sons work abroad. They ring her up every week > Her sons, II. Fill in the blanks with Relative pronouns or Relative adverbs where necessary 1. Let me see all the letters _______ you have written. 2. Is there anyone ________ can help me do this? 3. Mr. Brown, _________ is only 34, is the director of this company. 4. I know a place __________ roses grow in abundance. 5. We must find a time _______ we can meet and a place _______ we can talk. 6. The teacher with ________we studied last year no longer teaches in our school. 7. They showed me the hospital ________ buildings had been destroyed by US bombings. 8. We saw many soldiers and tanks ______ were moving to the front. III. Use a Relative pronoun preceded by a preposition to combine each pair of sentences below: 1. This is a rare opportunity. You should take advantage of it to get a better job. 2. The boy is my cousin. You made fun of him. 3. This matter is of great importance. You should pay attention to it. 4. The woman lives next door to me. You gave place to her on the bus. 5. The examination lasted two days. I was successful in this examination. IV. Reduce the following relative pronouns by using : VING, V3/VED, or TO-V 1. The man who teaches my son is my friend. 2. The computers which are used here are very old. 3. John was the last person who left the room. 4. Do you know the woman who made a very interesting speech last night? 5. They’ve just delivered the goods that were ordered last week. 6. Mary was the second person who was rescued from the burning house. 7. The couples who live in the house next door are both college professors. 8. Our solar system is in a galaxy that is called the Milky Way. 9. She is the only person who receives this scholarship. 10. They refused to carry out the plan which was worked out by the city council. 11. The people who were waiting for their children in the examination room looked nervous. 12. My brother was the only man who realized the danger. V. Choose one sentence that best rewrites the sentence given: 1. This man studies biology. What do you call him? A. What do you call a man who studies biology? B. What do you call a man, who studies biology? C. What do you call a man studies biology? D. What do you call a man whom studies biology? 2. Hemingway developed a very concise writing style. His name is well-known throughout the world. A. Hemingway, his name is well-known throughout the world, developed a very concise writing style. B. Hemingway, whose is name well-known throughout the world, developed a very concise writing style. C. Hemingway, whose name is well-known throughout the world, developed a very concise writing style. D. Hemingway, who developed a very concise writing style, his name is well-known throughout the world. 3. This is the battle field. The soldiers fought there. A. This is the battle field which the soldiers fought. B. This is the battle field that the soldiers fought. C. This is the battle field where the soldiers fought there. D. This is the battle field where the soldiers fought. 4. He was born in 1993. There was a severe drought that year. A. He was born in 1993 when there was a severe drought.B. He was born in 1983 when was there a severe drought. C. When there was a severe drought in 1983 he was born.D. He was born in 1983, there was a severe drought when 5. John Montagu was an English Earl. He invented the sandwich. A. John Montagu, whose invented the sandwich, was an English Earl. B. John Montagu, who invented the sandwich, was an English Earl. C. John Montagu, that invented the sandwich, was an English Earl. D. John Montagu, invented the sandwich, was an English Earl. 6. Flies, which come mostly in the summer, carry diseases. A. Flies, to come mostly in the summer, carry diseases. B. Flies, come mostly in the summer, carry diseases. C. Flies, coming mostly in the summer, carry diseases. D. Flies, that come mostly in the summer, carry diseases. 7. There was a candle which burnt in the room. A. There was a candle burning in the room. B. There was a candle to burnt in the room. C. There was a candle to burn in the room. D. There was a candle to be burnt in the room. 8. I see a boy who is running in the street. A. I see a boy running in the street. B. I see a boy to running in the street. C. I see a boy to run in the street. D. None is correct. 9. One of the drivers who was brought by Steward came over to me. A. One of the drivers that were brought by Steward came over to me. B. One of the drivers was brought by Steward came over to me. C. One of the drivers brought by Steward came over to me. D. One of the drivers bring by Steward came over to me. VI. Choose the most suitable word to complete sentence. 1. My friend, Jack, (that, who, whose) parents live in Glasgow, invited me to spend Christmas in Scotland. 2. Here’s the computer program (that, whom, whose) I told you about. 3. I don’t believe the story (that, who, whom) she told us. 4. Peter comes from Witney, (that, who, which) is near Oxford. 5. This is the gun with (that, whom, which) the murder was committed. 6. Is this the person ( whom, which, whose) you asked me about. 7. Have you received the parcel (whom, whose, which) we sent you? 8. That’s the girl (that, who, whose) brother sits next to me. 9. The meal,(that, which, whose) wasn’t very tasty, was expensive. 10. We didn’t enjoy the play ( that, who, whose) we went to see. 11. She gives her children everything (that, what, who) they want. 12. Tell me (what, that, which) you want and I’ll give it to you. 13.The reason (why, that, what) I phoned him was to invite him to party. 14. I don’t like people (who, whom, whose) never stops talking. 15. The day (which, that, when) they arrived was Sunday. BÀI TẬP VỀ MỆNH ĐỀ QUAN HỆ (RELATIVE CLAUSES) Name: Phạm Viết Thắng EXERCISE I : Write who, that, which, or nothing to complete these sentences : 1. Have you got the money ___________ I lent you yesterday ? 2.Peter, ___________ I had seen earlier, wasn’t at the party. 3. This is the machine ___________ cost half a million pounds. 4. Mary, ___________ had been listening to the conversation, looked angry. 5. Have you read the book ___________ I gave you ? 6. The hous, ___________ they bought three months ago, looks lovely. 7. Mrs.Jackson, ___________ had been very ill, died yesterday. 8. Is this the person ___________ stole your handbag ? 9. The dog, ___________ had been very quiet, suddenly started barking. 10. I didn’t receive the letters ___________ she sent me. 11. My mother, ___________ hadn’t been expecting visitors, looked surprised. 12. The old man, ______ had been talking to them earlier, knew that they were in the building. 13. The horse, _________ had been injured by the flying stones, was very frightened. 14. We didn’t like the secetary ___________ the agency sent. 15. I didn’t find the money ___________ you said you’d left. EXERCISE II : Join each pair of sentences using relative pronouns : 1. This is the man. I met him in Paris.  _____________________________________________ 2. I wanted the painting. You bought it. ___________________________________________ 3. This is the chair. My parents gave it to me _______________________________________ 4. She’s the woman. She telephoned the police.  _____________________________________ . LOẠI MỆNH ĐỀ QUAN HỆ: có ba loại mệnh đề quan hệ 1 .Mệnh đề quan hệ xác định ( restrictive relative clause) -Mệnh đề quan hệ xác định dùng để bổ nghĩa cho danh từ đứng trước, là bộ phận quan trọng. nghĩa: Mệnh đề quan hệ là mệnh đề phụ được nối với mệnh đề chính bởi các đại từ quan hệ (who, whom, whose, which, that ) hay các trạng từ quan hệ như (where, when, why). Mệnh đề quan hệ đứng. thể bỏ đại từ quan hệ và có không thể dùng that thay cho whom và which . VII.Lưu ý về mệnh đề quan hệ 1. Các đại từ quan hệ có chức năng tân ngữ trong mệnh đề quan hệ xác định đều có thể lược
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