Giáo trình động từ tiếng Pháp - Part II Using Verbs Correctly with Questions, Commands, and Such - Chapter 8 pdf

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Chapter 8 Telling People What to Do: The Regular, Irregular, and Pronominal Commands In This Chapter ᮣ Forming the imperative with regular and irregular verbs ᮣ Making the imperative negative ᮣ Including pronominal verbs in a command ᮣ Putting pronouns in the mix to make commands H ow do you tell people what to do, like bring you coffee, clean your house, go to the market, or even leave? You can tell people to do all these things and more by using the imperative mood, more commonly known as the command. This chapter shows you how to transform regular, irregular, and pronominal verbs into com- mands as well as how to create negative commands. Then I show you how to add pronouns to your commands. Forming Commands with Regular Verbs The technical term for giving commands or orders is the imperative. In this chapter, I use the terms interchangeably. You give orders in English as well as in French by using the verb directly and eliminating the subject pronoun. For example, you may say Set the table, Wash the dishes, and so on. In the following sections, I show you how to form commands with regular verbs. Making -er verbs into commands The commands come from the tu, nous, and vous forms of the present tense. Note that the subject pronouns are never used in the command, just their verb forms. In English, you don’t command someone by saying You speak. Instead, you simply say Speak! It’s the same in French. For all -er verbs (as well as the irregular verb aller [to go]), you drop the s from the tu form in the imperative. This rule also applies to irregular -ir verbs, which are conjugated like regular -er verbs — like ouvrir (to open), souffrir (to suffer), and offrir (to offer). The s reappears when the verb is followed by the pronouns y or en for pronunciation reasons. Examples include Parles-en! (Speak about it!), Vas-y! (Go there!), and Offres-en! (Offer some!). However, the s is dropped in the imperative negative: N’en parle pas (Don’t speak about it!), N’y va pas! (Don’t go there!), and N’en offre pas! (Don’t offer any!). The nous and vous forms don’t have any changes. 13_773883 ch08.qxp 8/2/06 1:29 PM Page 89 Use the tu command when speaking to one person with whom you’re familiar. You use the vous command when speaking to one person with whom you aren’t familiar, a superior (like your boss or your professor), or someone older than you; and when you’re speaking to more than one person. When you use the nous command, you’re including yourself in the group. For example, Allons au centre commercial (Let’s go to the mall ). Take a look at the verb parler (to speak) in Table 8-1 as an example of -er verbs. Table 8-1 Parler ( to speak ) in the Imperative Form Present Tense Imperative Form Tu parles Parle! ( Speak! ) Nous parlons Parlons! ( Let’s speak! ) Vous parlez Parlez! ( Speak! ) Try putting some regular -er verbs in their three imperative forms: tu, nous, and vous. Check out the example problem first. Q. Chanter (to sing) _________________ _________________ _________________ A. Chante! (Sing!), Chantons! (Let’s sing!), Chantez! (Sing!) 1. Arrêter (to stop) _________________ _________________ _________________ 2. Regarder (to watch) _________________ _________________ _________________ 3. Écouter (to listen) _________________ _________________ _________________ 4. Décider (to decide) _________________ _________________ _________________ 5. Répéter (to repeat) _________________ _________________ _________________ Making -ir verbs into commands Regular -ir verbs follow the same pattern in commands as the verbs that end in -er. You use the tu, nous, and vous forms of the verbs without the subject pronouns. Unlike the -er verbs, however, you don’t drop the s from the verb in the tu form. Check out Table 8-2 for an example of -ir verbs in the imperative. Table 8-2 Finir ( to finish ) in the Imperative Form Present Tense Imperative Form Tu finis Finis! ( Finish! ) Nous finissons Finissons! ( Let’s finish! ) Vous finissez Finissez! ( Finish! ) 90 Part II: Using Verbs Correctly with Questions, Commands, and Such 13_773883 ch08.qxp 8/2/06 1:29 PM Page 90 Put the following -ir verbs in the imperative form. For each question, write out the tu, nous, and vous forms. Q. Réunir (to reunite) _________________ _________________ _________________ A. Réunis! (Reunite!), Réunissons! (Let’s reunite!), Réunissez! (Reunite!) 6. Choisir (to choose) _________________ _________________ _________________ 7. Réfléchir (to think) _________________ _________________ _________________ 8. Obéir (to obey) _________________ _________________ _________________ 9. Applaudir (to applaud) _________________ _________________ _________________ 10. Réussir (to succeed) _________________ _________________ _________________ Making -re verbs into commands The -re verbs are no different than the -ir and -re verbs in the command form. Just take the tu, nous, and vous forms of the present tense and drop the subject pro- nouns. Take a look at Table 8-3 for an example -re verb. Table 8-3 Attendre ( to wait ) in the Imperative Form Present Tense Imperative Form Tu attends Attends! ( Wait! ) Nous attendons Attendons! ( Let’s wait! ) Vous attendez Attendez! ( Wait! ) Try putting regular -re verbs in their imperative tu, nous, and vous forms. Q. Défendre (to defend) _________________ _________________ _________________ A. Défends! (Defend!), Défendons! (Let’s defend!), Défendez! (Defend!) 11. Descendre (to go downstairs) _________________ _________________ _________________ 12. Répondre (to answer) _________________ _________________ _________________ 13. Vendre (to sell) _________________ _________________ _________________ 14. Rendre (to give back) _________________ _________________ _________________ 15. Entendre (to hear) _________________ _________________ _________________ 91 Chapter 8: Telling People What to Do: The Regular, Irregular, and Pronominal Commands 13_773883 ch08.qxp 8/2/06 1:29 PM Page 91 Forming Commands with Irregular Verbs Irregular verbs work exactly the same way as regular verbs (see the previous sec- tion). All you have to worry about is remembering the conjugation of the irregular verbs and you can put them in the tu, nous, and vous forms. (You can find the conju- gation of the irregular verbs in Chapter 4.) Check out the examples in Table 8-4 and Table 8-5. Table 8-4 Prendre ( to take ) in the Imperative Form Present Tense Imperative Form Tu prends Prends! ( Take! ) Nous prenons Prenons! ( Let’s take! ) Vous prenez Prenez! ( Take! ) Table 8-5 Lire ( to read ) in the Imperative Form Present Tense Imperative Form Tu lis Lis! ( Read! ) Nous lisons Lisons! ( Let’s read! ) Vous lisez Lisez! ( Read! ) As you can see, even most irregular verbs have the same pattern as the regular verbs. That is, you use their tu, nous, and vous present tense verb forms, minus the subject pronouns. Try putting the following verbs in the imperative form. Q. Écrire (to write) _________________ _________________ _________________ A. Écris! (Write!), Écrivons! (Let’s write!), Écrivez! (Write!) 16. Faire (to do, to make) _________________ _________________ _________________ 17. Aller (to go) _________________ _________________ _________________ 18. Sortir (to go out) _________________ _________________ _________________ 19. Venir (to come) _________________ _________________ _________________ 20. Dormir (to sleep) _________________ _________________ _________________ Four irregular verbs, however, also have irregular imperative forms, which are not the same as their present tenses. Check out Tables 8-6, 8-7, 8-8, and 8-9 to see these verbs. 92 Part II: Using Verbs Correctly with Questions, Commands, and Such 13_773883 ch08.qxp 8/2/06 1:29 PM Page 92 Table 8-6 Avoir ( to have ) in the Imperative Form Present Tense Imperative Form Tu as Aie! ( Have . . .! ) Nous avons Ayons! ( Let’s have . . .! ) Vous avez Ayez! ( Have . . .! ) Table 8-7 Être ( to be ) in the Imperative Form Present Tense Imperative Form Tu es Sois! ( Be . . .! ) Nous sommes Soyons! ( Let’s be . . .! ) Vous êtes Soyez! ( Be . . .! ) Table 8-8 Savoir ( to know ) in the Imperative Form Present Tense Imperative Form Tu sais Sache! ( Know . . .! ) Nous savons Sachons! ( Let’s know . . .! ) Vous savez Sachez! ( Know . . .! ) Table 8-9 Vouloir ( to want ) in the Imperative Form Present Tense Imperative Form Tu veux Veuille! ( Please . . .! ) Nous voulons Veuillons! ( Please . . .! ) Vous voulez Veuillez! ( Please . . .! ) For the verb vouloir, you mostly use the veuillez form when giving commands, and you usually follow it with the infinitive. This word is a polite way to give commands and is often translated as please, as it is with Veuillez entrer (Please come in) and Veuillez me suivre (Please follow me). Put the following verbs in their imperative forms for the subject pronoun indicated in parentheses. Q. Fermer la porte. (nous) A. Fermons la porte! (Let’s close the door!) 93 Chapter 8: Telling People What to Do: The Regular, Irregular, and Pronominal Commands 13_773883 ch08.qxp 8/2/06 1:29 PM Page 93 21. Être gentil. (tu) __________________________________________________________________________________ 22. Obéir à tes parents. (tu) __________________________________________________________________________________ 23. Manger. (nous) __________________________________________________________________________________ 24. Faire vos devoirs. (vous) __________________________________________________________________________________ 25. Avoir de la patience. (tu) __________________________________________________________________________________ Creating the Negative Imperative What if you want to tell people not to do something? Imagine telling your little sister, your child, or even your dog not to do something. For example, you tell them don’t yell, don’t run, and don’t touch. This section shows you how to use the negative com- mand. In order to use the negative command, just add ne before the imperative form and pas or any other negative expression after the imperative form. (For more on the negative, look at Chapter 7.) Check out the following examples. Ne parle pas! (Don’t speak!) Ne parlons pas! (Let’s not speak!) If the verb begins with a vowel or a mute h, drop the e from ne and add an apostrophe. N’attends pas! (Don’t wait!) N’attendons pas! (Let’s not wait!) Note that when the infinitive is negative, the ne and pas are placed together and they precede the infinitive. Veuillez ne pas fumer! (Please don’t smoke!) Veuillez ne pas toucher! (Please don’t touch!) Put the following verbs in the negative imperative for the tu, nous, or vous form, as indicated in parentheses. Q. Ne pas venir. (vous) __________________________________ A. Ne venez pas! (Don’t come!) 26. Ne pas commencer les devoirs. (nous) __________________________________________________________________________________ 94 Part II: Using Verbs Correctly with Questions, Commands, and Such 13_773883 ch08.qxp 8/2/06 1:29 PM Page 94 27. Ne pas dormir. (tu) __________________________________________________________________________________ 28. Ne pas mettre les pieds sur la table. (tu) __________________________________________________________________________________ 29. Ne pas aller au magasin. (nous) __________________________________________________________________________________ 30. Ne pas téléphoner à Marc. (tu) __________________________________________________________________________________ Using Pronominal Verbs to Make Commands You eliminate the subject pronouns in the imperative form, but you still have to keep the pronominal pronouns when you’re working with pronominal verbs (see Chapter 5 for the lowdown on pronominal verbs). In the affirmative imperative, the pronominal pronouns follow a verb-hyphen combination. In the negative imperative, the pronomi- nal pronouns precede the verb. Note: Ne precedes the pronouns and pas follows the verb. Check out the following example in Table 8-10. Table 8-10 Se Lever ( to get up ) in the Imperative Form Present Tense Affirmative Imperative Negative Imperative Tu te lèves Lève-toi! ( Get up! ) Ne te lève pas! ( Don’t get up! ) Nous nous levons Levons-nous! ( Let’s get up! ) Ne nous levons pas! ( Let’s not get up! ) Vous vous levez Levez-vous! ( Get up! ) Ne vous levez pas! ( Don’t get up! ) Note that the pronominal pronoun te becomes toi in the imperative affirmative but then returns to being te in the negative. If the verb begins with a vowel or a mute h, drop the e from te and add an apostrophe. An example is the verb s’habiller (to get dressed ), which you can see in Table 8-11. (Both se lever and s’habiller are -er verbs, so remember to drop the s from the tu form of their present conjugation.) Table 8-11 S’habiller ( to get dressed ) in the Imperative Form Present Tense Affirmative Imperative Negative Imperative Tu t’habilles Habille-toi! Ne t’habille pas! ( Get dressed! )( Don’t get dressed! ) Nous nous habillons Habillons-nous! Ne nous habillons pas! ( Let’s get dressed! )( Let’s not get dressed! ) Vous vous habillez Habillez-vous! Ne vous habillez pas! ( Get dressed! )( Don’t get dressed! ) 95 Chapter 8: Telling People What to Do: The Regular, Irregular, and Pronominal Commands 13_773883 ch08.qxp 8/2/06 1:29 PM Page 95 Now it’s your turn. Put the following pronominal verbs in the three imperative forms, first in the affirmative and then in the negative. Q. Se maquiller (to put on makeup) A. (tu) Maquille-toi! (Put on makeup!), Ne te maquille pas! (Don’t put on makeup!) (nous) Maquillons-nous! (Let’s put on makeup!), Ne nous maquillons pas! (Let’s not put on makeup! ) (vous) Maquillez-vous! (Put on makeup!), Ne vous maquillez pas! (Don’t put on makeup!) 31. Se coucher (to go to bed) (tu) _________________ _________________ (nous) _________________ _________________ (vous) _________________ _________________ 32. Se réveiller (to wake up) (tu) _________________ _________________ (nous) _________________ _________________ (vous) _________________ _________________ 33. Se laver (to get washed) (tu) _________________ _________________ (nous) _________________ _________________ (vous) _________________ _________________ 34. Se brosser les dents (to brush one’s teeth) (tu) _________________ _________________ (nous) _________________ _________________ (vous) _________________ _________________ 35. Se raser (to shave) (tu) _________________ _________________ (nous) _________________ _________________ (vous) _________________ _________________ Adding Pronouns to Commands If you want to add pronouns to commands, with comments such as take it, give it to us, or offer her some, use the verb in the imperative affirmative and then the pronoun, and you join the two with a hyphen. Use the following order separated by hyphens: 96 Part II: Using Verbs Correctly with Questions, Commands, and Such 13_773883 ch08.qxp 8/2/06 1:29 PM Page 96 Verb in the imperative- + direct object- + indirect object- + y- + en You never use all these pronouns at once, but you often use two of them, and this chart shows the order you use them in. For example, to say give it to her, put the verb in the imperative, add a hyphen, the direct object, another hyphen, and the indirect object, like so: Donne-le-lui! Before you practice adding pronouns to commands, you need to know the direct and indirect object pronouns. Table 8-12 lists them with their English counterparts. Table 8-12 Direct and Indirect Object Pronouns Direct Object Direct Object Indirect Object Indirect Object Pronoun (English) Pronoun (French) Pronoun (English) Pronoun (French) me me to me me you te to you te him/it (masculine singular) le to him lui her/it (feminine singular) la to her lui us nous to us nous you vous to you vous them les to them leur In the negative command, the ne precedes the pronoun or pronouns and the pas or another negative word follows the verb in the command form. Check out the follow- ing examples of affirmative and negative imperatives with direct and indirect object pronouns. Parle-lui! (Speak to him/her!), Ne lui parle pas! (Don’t speak to him/her!) Finis-le! (Finish it!), Ne le finis pas! (Don’t finish it!) Commençons-la! (Let’s begin it!), Ne la commençons pas! (Let’s not begin it!) Écrivez-nous! (Write to us!), Ne nous écrivez pas! (Don’t write to us!) The following are examples of both direct and indirect objects together. Note that the direct object precedes the indirect object and that me and te change to moi and toi when they’re at the end of the imperative construction. In the negative, however, they go back to me and te. Note: You usually never have more than two pronouns in a sen- tence, but Figure 8-1 shows the order the pronouns come in. Donnez-les-moi! (Give them to me!), Ne me les donnez pas! (Don’t give them to me!) Envoyons-le-leur! (Let’s send it to them!), Ne le leur envoyons pas! (Let’s not send it to them! ) Vends-les-nous! (Sell them to us!), Ne nous les vends pas! (Don’t sell them to us!) ne + + me te se nous vous le la les + lui leur +y+en+verb + pas Figure 8-1: The order of pronouns for the negative commands. 97 Chapter 8: Telling People What to Do: The Regular, Irregular, and Pronominal Commands 13_773883 ch08.qxp 8/2/06 1:29 PM Page 97 The pronoun y means there or in it and is a pronoun of place. It replaces phrases starting with prepositions of place such as à, en, dans, sur, sous, and à + noun (things, not people). For example, à + la musique means in music in the sentence Je m’intéresse à la musique (I am interested in music). You replace à la musique with y. The pronoun en replaces the prepositions de, du, de l’, and des + noun, and it means some, any, from there, or of them, depending on what it’s replacing. Offres-en! (Offer some!), N’en offre pas! (Don’t offer any!) Prends-en! (Take some!), N’en prends pas! (Don’t take any!) Allons-y! (Let’s go [there]!), N’y allons pas! (Let’s not go [there]!) Don’t forget to add the s to the tu form of -er verbs if the pronoun begins with a vowel and the verb ends in a vowel. However, in the negative, the s is dropped. Entres-y! (Enter [there]!), N’y entre pas! (Don’t enter [there]!) Check out these examples with more added pronouns. Mets-les-y! (Put them there!), Ne les y mets pas! (Don’t put them there!) Parlez-lui-en! (Speak to him/her about it!), Ne lui en parlez pas! (Don’t speak to him/her about it! ) Place-l’y! (Place it there!), Ne l’y place pas! (Don’t place it there!) Translate the following sentences by putting the verb in the imperative form and adding the appropriate pronouns by looking at Table 8-12. (Remember that some verbs are transitive in French but intransitive in English and vice versa, so check out Chapter 1 if you need additional help.) Q. Let’s ask him! A. Demandons-lui! 36. Finish them! __________________________________________________________________________________ 37. Let’s speak to them! __________________________________________________________________________________ 38. Go there! __________________________________________________________________________________ 39. Open it! __________________________________________________________________________________ 40. Close it! __________________________________________________________________________________ 98 Part II: Using Verbs Correctly with Questions, Commands, and Such 13_773883 ch08.qxp 8/2/06 1:29 PM Page 98 [...]... (Sleep!), Dormons! (Let’s sleep!), Dormez! (Sleep!) u Sois gentil! (Be nice!) v Obéis à tes parents! (Obey your parents!) w Mangeons! (Let’s eat!) 99 13_77 388 3 ch 08. qxp 100 8/ 2/06 1:29 PM Page 100 Part II: Using Verbs Correctly with Questions, Commands, and Such x Faites vos devoirs! (Do your homework!) y Aie de la patience! (Have patience!) A Ne commençons pas les devoirs! (Let’s not begin the homework!)... Brossez-vous les dents! (Brush your teeth!), Ne vous brossez pas les dents! (Don’t brush your teeth!) J (tu) Rase-toi! (Shave!), Ne te rase pas! (Don’t shave!) (nous) Rasons-nous! (Let’s shave!), Ne nous rasons pas! (Let’s not shave!) (vous) Rasez-vous! (Shave!), Ne vous rasez pas! (Don’t shave!) K Finis-les! Or, Finissez-les! L Parlons-leur! M Vas-y! Or, Allez-y! N Ouvre-le/la! Or, Ouvrez-le/la! O Ferme-le/la!...13_77 388 3 ch 08. qxp 8/ 2/06 1:29 PM Page 99 Chapter 8: Telling People What to Do: The Regular, Irregular, and Pronominal Commands Answer Key This section provides the answers for all the problems in this chapter Compare your answers to the correct ones How did you do? Remember that some of these verbs usually appear with a noun, so the literal translation may appear... Couche-toi! (Go to bed!), Ne te couche pas! (Don’t go to bed!) (nous) Couchons-nous! (Let’s go to bed!), Ne nous couchons pas! (Let’s not go to bed!) (vous) Couchez-vous! (Go to bed!), Ne vous couchez pas! (Don’t go to bed!) G (tu) Réveille-toi! (Wake up!), Ne te réveille pas! (Don’t wake up!) (nous) Réveillons-nous! (Let’s wake up!), Ne nous réveillons pas! (Let’s not wake up!) (vous) Réveillez-vous!... up!) H (tu) Lave-toi! (Wash yourself!), Ne te lave pas! (Don’t wash yourself!) (nous) Lavons-nous! (Let’s wash ourselves!), Ne nous lavons pas! (Let’s not wash ourselves!) (vous) Lavez-vous! (Wash yourself/yourselves!), Ne vous lavez pas! (Don’t wash yourself/ yourselves!) I (tu) Brosse-toi les dents! (Brush your teeth!), Ne te brosse pas les dents! (Don’t brush your teeth!) (nous) Brossons-nous les dents!... not shave!) (vous) Rasez-vous! (Shave!), Ne vous rasez pas! (Don’t shave!) K Finis-les! Or, Finissez-les! L Parlons-leur! M Vas-y! Or, Allez-y! N Ouvre-le/la! Or, Ouvrez-le/la! O Ferme-le/la! Or, Fermez-le/la! . it! __________________________________________________________________________________ 98 Part II: Using Verbs Correctly with Questions, Commands, and Such 13_77 388 3 ch 08. qxp 8/ 2/06 1:29 PM Page 98 99 Chapter 8: Telling People What to Do: The Regular, Irregular, and Pronominal. irregular verbs, however, also have irregular imperative forms, which are not the same as their present tenses. Check out Tables 8- 6 , 8- 7 , 8- 8 , and 8- 9 to see these verbs. 92 Part II: Using Verbs Correctly. finissez Finissez! ( Finish! ) 90 Part II: Using Verbs Correctly with Questions, Commands, and Such 13_77 388 3 ch 08. qxp 8/ 2/06 1:29 PM Page 90 Put the following -ir verbs in the imperative form.
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