the complete reference - red hat enterprise linux & fedora ed 2004

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< Day Day Up > Red Hat: The Complete Reference Enterprise Linux & Fedora Edition: The Complete Reference by Richard L. Petersen ISBN:0 07223 0754 McGraw-Hill © 2004 (797 pages) Use this comprehensive guide to maximize the powerful capabilities of Red Hat Enterprise and Fedora Linux. Coverage includes Bluecurve, KDE, GNOME, deploying and managing servers and users, the 2.6 kernel, system and network security, and more. ABC Amber CHM Converter Trial version, http://www.processtext.com/abcchm.html < Day Day Up > Back Cover Maximize the powerful capabilities of Red Hat Enterprise and Fedora Linux using this comprehensive and up-to-date reference. You'll get full details on everything from installation and configuration to system administration and server management of Enterprise Linux-with specifics on the Linux Kernel 2.6. Thorough security coverage includes GPG, IPSec, SSH, Kerberos, and firewalls. Learn to deploy and manage Web proxy, mail, and print server, and administer users, software, and file systems. • Install, manage, secure, and administer Enterprise Linux 3.0 and Fedora • Master Bluecurve, KDE, GNOME, office and multimedia applications, the shell, file systems, and Internet clients • Deploy and manage servers-vsftpd and ProFTP (FTP), Apache (Web), Sendmail and Postfix (mail), Squid (proxy), CUPS (print), and HTDig (search), SAMBA and NFS (file), NIS, and BIND (DNS), and DHCP • Master the complete suite of Red Hat system and network administration tools • Manage users, services, journaling file systems, RAID devices, LVM volumes, and printers • Reconfigure the 2.6 kernel and its modules • Ensure system and network security using packet filtering, authentication, digital signatures, VPNs, IPSEC, and encryption • Deploy powerful desktop, office, database, graphic, editing, and Internet applications About the Author Richard Petersen, MLIS, teaches UNIX and C/C++ courses at the University of California at Berkeley. He is the author of Linux: The Complete Reference (all four editions), Linux Programming: A Beginner's Guide, and many other titles. < Day Day Up > ABC Amber CHM Converter Trial version, http://www.processtext.com/abcchm.html ABC Amber CHM Converter Trial version, http://www.processtext.com/abcchm.html < Day Day Up > Red Hat - The Complete Reference Enterprise Linux & Fedora Edition Richard Petersen McGraw-Hill/Osborne 2100 Powell Street, 10th Floor Emeryville, California 94608 U.S.A. To arrange bulk purchase discounts for sales promotions, premiums, or fund-raisers, please contact McGraw-Hill/Osborne at the above address. For information on translations or book distributors outside the U.S.A., please see the International Contact Information page immediately following the index of this book. Copyright © 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Except as permitted under the Copyright Act of 1976, no part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the publisher, with the exception that the program listings may be entered, stored, and executed in a computer system, but they may not be reproduced for publication. 1234567890 DOC DOC 019876543 Book p/n 0-07-223076-2 and DVD p/n 0-07-223077-0 parts of ISBN 0-07-223075-4 Publisher Brandon A. Nordin Vice President & Associate Publisher Scott Rogers Editorial Director Tracy Dunkelberger Project Editor Carolyn Welch Acquisitions Coordinator Jessica Wilson Technical Editor Dean Henrichsmeyer Technical Reviewer Ibrahim Haddad Copy Editor Bob Campbell Proofreaders Claire Splan, Mike McGee Indexer Claire Splan Composition George Toma Charbak, Jim Kussow, ABC Amber CHM Converter Trial version, http://www.processtext.com/abcchm.html Kelly Stanton-Scott Illustrators Kathleen Fay Edwards, Melinda Moore Lytle Series Design Peter F. Hancik, Lyssa Wald This book was composed with Corel VENTURA ™ Publisher. Information has been obtained by McGraw-Hill/Osborne from sources believed to be reliable. However, because of the possibility of human or mechanical error by our sources, McGraw-Hill/Osborne, or others, McGraw-Hill/Osborne does not guarantee the accuracy, adequacy, or completeness of any information and is not responsible for any errors or omissions or the results obtained from use of such information. To my sisters-in-law, Marylou and Valerie About the Author Richard Petersen holds a M.L.I.S. in Library and Information Studies. He currently teaches Unix and C/C++ courses at the University of California, Berkeley. About the Technical Reviewer Ibrahim Haddad is a Researcher at the Open System Lab (Ericsson Corporate Unit of Research), located in Montreal, Canada. He is involved with the system architecture of third-generation wireless IP networks and represents Ericsson on the Technical Board of the Open Source Development Labs, the Carrier Grade Linux Working Group. His other commitments include serving as Contributing Editor to the Linux Journal and LinuxWorld magazine as well as contributing articles to the O'Reilly Network and Linux User & Developer magazine. He has delivered a number of presentations and tutorials at local universities, IEEE and ACM conferences, Open Source forums, and international conferences. Ibrahim contributed to Richard Petersen's book Red Hat Linux Pocket Administrator, published by McGraw-Hill/Osborne. He received his bachelor and master degrees in Computer Science from the Lebanese American University. He is currently a Dr. Sc. Candidate at Concordia University in Montreal. Academic awards include the "J. W. McConnell Memorial Graduate Fellowship" and the "Concordia University 25 th Anniversary Fellowship," both received in 2000. About the Technical Editor Dean Henrichsmeyer has been using Linux since 1995. He has a B.S. in Computer Science and has been an active member of the Linux community, presenting at Linux focused tradeshows such as LinuxWorld Conference and Expo. He's worked for VA Research (now known as VA Software) since 1999. He currently is working for OSDN, the Open Source Development Network, where, among other things, he is the site director for Linux.com. Acknowledgments I would like to thank all those at McGraw-Hill/Osborne, who made this book a reality: Tracy Dunkelberger, Editorial Director, for her continued encouragement and analysis as well as management of such a complex project; Dean Henrichsmeyer and Ibrahim Haddad, technical editor and technical reviewer, whose analysis and suggestions proved very insightful and helpful; Jessica Wilson, acquisitions coordinator, who provided needed resources and helpful advice; Bob Campbell, copy editor, for excellent editing as well as his insightful comments; and project editor Carolyn Welch, who incorporated the many features found in this book and coordinated the intricate task of generating the final version. Thanks also to Scott Rogers who initiated the project. Special thanks to Linus Torvalds, the creator of Linux, and to those who continue to develop Linux as an open, professional, and effective operating system accessible to anyone. Thanks also to the academic community, without whose special dedication Unix would not be the flexible and versatile operating system it is today. I would also like to thank professors and students at the University of California, Berkeley, for their experience and support in developing new and different ways of understanding operating system ABC Amber CHM Converter Trial version, http://www.processtext.com/abcchm.html technologies. I would also like to thank my parents, George and Cecelia, and my brothers George, Robert, and Mark for their support and encouragement with such a difficult project. Also Valerie and Marylou and my nieces and nephews Aleina, Larisa, Justin, Christopher, and Dylan, for their support and deadline reminders. < Day Day Up > ABC Amber CHM Converter Trial version, http://www.processtext.com/abcchm.html < Day Day Up > Introduction The Red Hat Linux distribution has become one of the major Linux distributions, bringing to the PC all the power and flexibility of a Unix workstation as well as a complete set of Internet applications and a fully functional desktop interface. This book is designed not only to be a complete reference on Linux, but also provides clear and detailed explanations of Linux features. No prior knowledge of Unix is assumed; Linux is an operating system anyone can use. Red Hat has split its Linux development into two lines: Red Hat® Enterprise Linux® and the Fedora™ Project. Red Hat Enterprise Linux features commercial enterprise products for servers and workstations, with controlled releases issued every two years or so. The Fedora Project is an Open Source initiative whose Fedora Core release will be issued every six months on average, incorporating the most recent developments in Linux operating system features as well as supported applications. The Fedora release consists entirely of Open Source software. Development is carried out, using contributions from Linux developers, allowing them to promote enhancements, new features, and cutting-edge applications. The project operates like other open source projects, with releases keeping pace with the course of rapid online development. Unlike Red Hat Enterprise Linux, the Fedora Core version of Linux is entirely free, though not supported by Red Hat, Inc. You can download the most current version, including test betas, from fedora.redhat.com. The Fedora Project release will replace the original entry-level Red Hat Linux distribution. The Fedora Project will also provide Fedora extras, software that enhances the core collection, and Fedora alternatives, popular alternatives to core software applications. The Red Hat Enterprise line of products is designed for corporate, research, and business applications. These products focus on reliability, stability, and performance. They are released on a much more controlled schedule than the Fedora Project versions. What was once the low-cost consumer version of Red Hat Linux will be replaced by a scaled-down commercial Enterprise version for consumers and small businesses. Red Hat offers three Enterprise versions: one for the workstation and two for servers. Red Hat Enterprise AS provides the highest level of support from intense mission critical requirements for all aspects of network support, including servers, databases, and security. Red Hat Enterprise ES provides a similar package but one geared to mid-level business requirements. The Red Hat Enterprise WS implements a workstation with a wide range of clients that can be used for either Red Hat Enterprise ES or AS networks. This book covers the current Fedora Core release, while maintaining compatibility with Red Hat Enterprise Linux. The complete Fedora Core release is provided on the DVD-ROM included with this book. This book identifies seven major Linux topics: Basic setup, environments, applications, security, servers, system administration, and network administration. Whereas the book details the latest Red Hat tools, desktops, and kernel featured in the Fedora Project, it also covers in depth the network servers, administrative tasks, and applications featured in Red Hat Enterprise Linux. The book can be used as a comprehensive reference for both Red Hat Enterprise Linux and the Fedora Project. The first two sections of the book are designed to cover tasks you would need to perform to get your system up and running. After an introduction to the working environment, including both GNOME and KDE desktops, you learn how to quickly update your system, manage users and groups, and set up your printer using the Red Hat administrative tools. The software management is nearly automatic, letting you install software on your system, including applications, with just a couple of mouse clicks. Internet access can be set up for modems, DSL, wireless, and Ethernet networks with easy-to-use administrative tools that guide you every step of the way. Many people now use Linux to set up a home or local business network. The steps involved to implement a basic network can now be carried out using simple software tools. You can even install Bluetooth devices. All these topics are covered in greater detail later in the book. GNOME and the K Desktop Environment (KDE) have become standard desktop Graphical User Interfaces (GUI) for Linux and are noted for their power, flexibility, and ease-of-use. These are complete desktop environments that are more flexible than either Windows or the Mac/OS. You can install both, run applications from on the other, and easily switch from one to the other. Both have become integrated components of Linux, with applications and tools for every kind of task and operation. Instead of treating GNOME and KDE as separate entities, GNOME and KDE tools and applications are presented throughout the book. ABC Amber CHM Converter Trial version, http://www.processtext.com/abcchm.html Linux is also a fully functional Unix operating system. It has all the standard features of a powerful Unix system, including a complete set of Unix shells such as BASH, TCSH, and the Z-shell. Those familiar with the Unix interface can use any of these shells, with the same Unix commands, filters, and configuration features. For the Internet, Linux has become a platform for very powerful network applications. With Linux you can become a part of the Internet by creating your own Web and FTP sites. Other users can access your Linux systems, several at the same time, using different services. You can also use very powerful GNOME, KDE, and Unix clients for mail and news. Linux systems are not limited to the Internet. You can use it on any local intranet, setting up an FTP or Web site for your network. Red Hat Linux comes equipped with variety of fully functional servers already installed and ready to use. A wide array of applications operates on Red Hat Linux. Numerous GNOME and KDE applications are continually released through their respective Web sites. The GNU general public licensed software provides professional-level applications such as programming development tools, editors, and word processors, as well as numerous specialized applications such as those for graphics and sound. A massive amount of software is available at online Linux sites like sourceforge.net where you can download Open Source applications and then easily install them onto your system. Since this book is really five books in one-a user interface book, a security book, a server book, a networking book, and an administration book-how you choose to use it depends upon how you want to use your Red Hat Linux system. Almost all Linux operations can be carried out using either the GNOME or KDE interfaces. You can focus on the GNOME and KDE chapters and their corresponding tools and applications. On the other hand, if you want to delve deeper into the Unix aspects of Linux, you can check out the Shell chapters and the corresponding shell-based applications in other chapters. If you only want to use Linux for its Internet services, then you should concentrate on the Internet clients and servers. If you want to use Linux as a multiuser system servicing many users or integrate it into a local network, you can use the detailed system, file, and network administration information provided in the administration chapters. None of these tasks are in any way exclusive. If you are working in a business environment, you will probably make use of all three aspects. Single users may concentrate more on the desktops and the Internet features, whereas administrators may make more use of the security and networking features. Part I of this book is designed to help you start using Red Hat Linux quickly. It provides an introduction to Red Hat Linux along with a listing of Linux resources, including software repositories, documentation sites, newsgroups, and Linux news and development sites. The next chapter covers the streamlined installation procedure for most distributions, which takes about 30 minutes or less. The installation program from Red Hat provides excellent commentary, describing each step in detail. In this section you also learn the essentials of using both GNOME and KDE, along with the basics of working on the shell command line. System configuration tasks like adding printers and creating new user accounts are presented with the easiest methods, without much of the complex detail described in the administration chapters that is unnecessary for basic operations. Basic network configuration tasks are discussed such as setting up a LAN, DSL, or Wireless connection to an Internet Service Provider (ISP). You also learn the basics of how to set up a small local network. Part II of this book deals with Red Hat Linux environments. Here you are introduced to the different kinds of user environments available for Linux, starting with KDE and GNOME. Different features such as applets, the Panel, and configuration tools are described in detail. With either of these interfaces, you can run all your applications using icons, menus, and windows. At any time, you can open up a terminal window through which you can enter standard Linux commands on a command line. You can also choose to use just the standard Unix command line interface to run any of the standard Unix commands. Next, the BASH shell and its various file, directory, and filter commands are examined. Part III of this book discusses in detail the many office, multimedia, and Internet applications you can use on your Linux system, beginning with Office suites like OpenOffice and KOffice. The different database management systems available are also discussed along with the Web site locations where you can download them. A variety of different text editors are also available, including several GNOME and KDE editors, as well as the Vim (enhanced VI), gvim (graphical Vi), and GNU Emacs editors. Linux automatically installs mail, news, FTP, and Web browser applications, as well as FTP and Web servers. Both KDE and GNOME come with a full set of mail, news, FTP clients, and Web browsers. There are also many independent mail clients, newsreaders, and Internet tools you can easily install from your desktop. ABC Amber CHM Converter Trial version, http://www.processtext.com/abcchm.html Part IV demonstrates how to implement security precautions using encryption, authentication, and firewalls. Coverage of the General Public License Privacy Guard (GPG) shows you how to implement public and private key based encryption. IPsec tools let you use the IPSEC protocol to encrypt and authenticate network transmissions. Network security topics cover firewalls and encryption using netfilter (iptables) to protect your system, the Secure Shell (SSH) to provide secure remote transmissions, and Kerberos to provide secure authentication. Part V discusses Internet servers you can run on Red Hat Linux, including FTP, Web, and DNS servers. Internet servers have become integrated components of most Linux systems. Both the standard vsftpd FTP server and the ProFTPD server with its directive format are presented, covering features like guest and virtual FTP sites. The Apache Web server chapter covers standard configuration directives like those for automatic indexing as well as the newer virtual host directives. Sendmail, Postfix, IMAP, and POP mail servers are covered. The INN news server, CUPS print server, the Squid proxy server, and the ht:/DIG search server are also examined. Part VI discusses system administration topics including user, software, file system, device, and kernel administration. There are detailed descriptions of the configuration files used in administration tasks and how to make entries in them. First, basic system administration tasks are covered such as selecting runlevels, monitoring your system, and scheduling shutdowns. Then aspects of setting up and controlling users and groups are discussed. Presentations include both the GUI tools you can use for these tasks and the underlying configuration files and commands. Software installation has been simplified with package management systems like the Red Hat Package Manager (RPM) and redhat- config-packages. Then, different file system tasks are covered such as mounting file systems, selecting device names, configuring RAID devices and LVM volumes, and using CD and DVD R/RW drives. Device configuration covers topics such as device files, installing printers, and using the kernel modules to support new devices. Using, updating, and configuring the Linux kernel with its modules is covered in detail along with procedures for installing new kernels. Part VII covers network administration topics such as configuring remote file system access and setting up firewalls. Configuration files and features for the Domain Name System (DNS) and its BIND server are examined in detail along with features like virtual domains and IP aliases. With Linux you can easily set up your own Domain Name server for a local network. You also learn how to implement your own Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) server to dynamically assign hosts IP addresses. The various network file system interfaces and services like NFS for Unix and NIS networks are presented. The chapter on Samba shows you how to access Windows file systems and printers. Then, the different aspects of network administration are discussed such as network connections and routes, Domain Name services, Hostname designations, IP virtual hosts, and IP masquerading. Finally, there is an appendix covering what is available on the DVD-ROM included with this book. < Day Day Up > ABC Amber CHM Converter Trial version, http://www.processtext.com/abcchm.html < Day Day Up > Part I: Getting Started Chapter List Chapter 1: Introduction to Red Hat Linux Chapter 2: Installing Red Hat and Fedora Core Linux Chapter 3: Interface Basics Chapter 4: Red Hat System Configuration Chapter 5: Red Hat Network Configuration < Day Day Up > ABC Amber CHM Converter Trial version, http://www.processtext.com/abcchm.html [...]... page for Red Hat Linux, including links to current online documentation fedora. redhat.com The Fedora Project, current free Open Source releases of Red Hat fedora. redhat.com/docs Documentation and support tutorials for Fedora Core releases The Official Red Hat Linux Getting Started Guide A getting-started guide for first-time users The Official Red Hat Linux x86 Installation Guide A detailed installation... professional-level Red Hat systems Red Hat has forged software alliances with major companies like Oracle, IBM, Dell, and Sun Currently, Red Hat provides several commercial products, known as Red Hat Enterprise Linux These include the Red Hat Enterprise Advanced Server for intensive enterprise- level tasks; Red Hat Enterprise ES, which is a version of Linux designed for small businesses and networks; and Red Hat. .. modifying the system date and time redhat-config-httpd Apache configuration tool redhat-config-keyboard A graphical interface for modifying the keyboard redhat-config-kickstart A graphical interface for making kickstart files redhat-config-language A graphical interface for modifying the system language redhat-config-mouse A graphical interface for configuring mice redhat-config-network The network... administration tool for Red Hat Linux redhat-config-nfs The NFS server configuration tool redhat-config-packages The package manager for Linux RPM software ABC Amber CHM Converter Trial version, http://www.processtext.com/abcchm.html Table 1-2 : Red Hat Administration Tools Administration Tool Operation redhat-config-printer A printer configuration back end/front end combination redhat-config-printer-gui A GUI front... printconf redhat-config-proc A configuration tool for operating system tunable parameters redhat-config-rootpassword A graphical interface for modifying the root password redhat-config-samba Samba server configuration tool redhat-config-securitylevel A graphical interface for modifying the system security level redhat-config-services An initscript and xinetd configuration utility redhat-config-soundcard... Extras and Fedora Alternative Collections Red Hat Enterprise Linux The Red Hat Enterprise line of products is designed for corporate, research, and business applications These products focus on reliability and stability They are released on a much more controlled schedule than the Fedora Project versions What was once the low-cost consumer version of Red Hat Linux will be replaced by a scaled-down commercial... For Red Hat Fedora Core, you can update to the latest Red Hat RPM package versions of software from their Fedora Yum repository using the Red Hat Update Agent (see Chapter 4) For Red Hat Enterprise Linux, you can automatically download upgrades for your system using the Red Hat Network described Also, any RPM package that you download directly, from whatever site, can be installed easily with the click... continues to refine the Bluecurve interface, providing  a seamless graphical GUI for both GNOME and KDE With the Fedora Core, Red Hat now has a complete range of Red Hat administration tools, all of which include a GNOME interface (see Table 1-2 ) Table 1-2 : Red Hat Administration Tools Administration Tool Operation redhat-config-bind A Red Hat DNS configuration tool redhat-config-date A graphical interface... installation guide for Red Hat Linux Red Hat Linux Installation Gotchas Installation troubleshooting Red Hat Reference Guide The Red Hat Reference Red Hat Customization Guide Topics covering common customization tasks and tools, such as server configurations Official Red Hat Linux Security Guide A comprehensive guide to all aspects of user, system, and network security Red Hat Linux System Administration... commercial Linux systems Red Hat has split its Linux development into two lines: Red Hat Enterprise Linux and the Fedora Project Red Hat Enterprise Linux features commercial enterprise products for servers and workstations, with controlled releases issued every two years or so The Fedora Project is an Open Source initiative whose Fedora Core release will be issued every six months on average, incorporating the . Operation redhat-config-bind A Red Hat DNS configuration tool redhat-config-date A graphical interface for modifying the system date and time redhat-config-httpd Apache configuration tool redhat-config-keyboard. Official Red Hat Linux x86 Installation Guide A detailed installation guide for Red Hat Linux Red Hat Linux Installation Gotchas Installation troubleshooting Red Hat Reference Guide The Red Hat Reference Red. modifying the system language redhat-config-mouse A graphical interface for configuring mice redhat-config-network The network administration tool for Red Hat Linux redhat-config-nfs The NFS server
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