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 !"#$%&'()*+,$-(.'(/0 !" Declaration I certify that all the material in this minor thesis which is not my own work has been identified and acknowledged, and that no material is included for which a degree has already been conferred upon me. Acknowledgements I would like to express my great gratitude to my supervisor, Dr. Nguyn Huy  of Hanoi Junior Teacher Training College, for his enormously helpful advice, constant and tireless help and support throughout this thesis. I wish to acknowledge my gratitude to teachers at Hanoi National University – College of Foreign Languages whose lectures on the area of grammar have enlightened the arguments in this study. I am also grateful for the support of Mrs. Mai, my former teacher, in collecting and evaluating the statistics in the thesis. Finally, I would like to thank my family, especially my brother whose talent in computer programmes has saved the thesis many times, and friends who have supported and encouraged me during the course. Hanoi, September, 2006 Ninh Phng Lan  Abstract Basing on grammatical theories, especially functional ones, this study aims at describing the nature, the main characteristics of appositive phrases in English and then identifying classes into which these phrases are divided. The second aim of this study is trying to find out the similarities and the differences between appositive phrases in the two languages English and Vietnamese. And from the findings, a further study about appositive phrases in both languages may be possible. After the theoretical part, an achievement test is done in order to investigate the ability of acquiring English appositive phrases among Vietnamese high school students, so that some suggestions for research about the syllabus as well as course book design could be drawn out to make language learners be able to learn English appositive phrases better. Contents Declaration i Acknowledgements ii Abstract iii Contents iv Part 1 - Introduction 1. Rationale 1 2. Objectives 2 3. Scope of the study 2 4. Methods of the study 2 5. Design of the study 3 6. Theoretical background 3 6.1. History of the subject study 3 6.2. Theory of Grammar 4 6.2.1. Definitions 4 6.2.2. Schools of Grammar 6 Traditional Grammar 6 Descriptive Grammar 7 Transformational Generative Grammar 9 Systemic Functional Grammar 11 Part 2 - Development Chapter 1 - Functional Grammar and Syntax 14 1.1. Functional Grammar 14 1.1.1. Halliday’s Functional Grammar 14 1.1.2. Vietnamese Functional Grammar 17 1.2. Syntax 17 1.2.1. Definition 17 1.2.2. Syntactic theory and structure 18 Chapter 2 - Appositive Phrases 19 2.1. Noun Phrases 19 2.1.1. Phrases and types of phrases 19 2.1.2. Noun phrases - Definition and types 20 2.2. Apposition 20 2.2.1. Definitions 20 2.2.2. Appositive phrases and relative phrases 22 2.2.3. Types of appositive phrases 22 Full and partial appositive phrases 23 Strict and weak appositive phrases 24 Non-restrictive and restrictive appositive phrases 24 Combination 25 2.2.4. Structure of appositive phrases 26 2.2.5. Scale of strict non-restrictive appositive phrases 27 Equivalence 28 Attribution 31 Inclusion 31 2.2.6. Summary 32 2.2.7. Appositive phrases in Vietnamese Functional Grammar 33 Definition 33 Types of appositive phrases in Vietnamese Functional Grammar 34 Chapter 3 - Investigation 36 3.1. Test design 36 3.1.1. Description of syllabus and course book 36 3.1.2. Objectives of the test 37 3.1.3. Format of the test 37 3.2. Test implementation 38 3.3. Test result 38 Part 3 - Conclusion 1. Conclusion 42 2. Implementation 43 3. Suggestion for further study 43 References I Appendixes Appendix 1: Achievement test IV Appendix 2: List of informants IX Appendix 3: Sample test on English appositive phrases in High School course book XIV Appendix 4: Table of test results Part 1 INTRODUCTION #$In traditional English grammar, words and sentences (morphology and syntax) were considered as two basic grammatical elements that built up the grammar theory and most of studies about grammar were set around these two phenomena. However, right from that time, there have also been new linguistic issues indicating the fact that there are other linguistic items lying between words and sentences, even overlapping these two items, or lying beyond sentences. The need for studies about those phenomena has led to new schools of grammar with more reasonable concepts established. According to these concepts, apart from words and sentences, phrases are also one of the most essential linguistic factors in the grammar of the English language. A phrase is a syntactic construction which typically contains more than one word, but which lacks the subject-predicate structure found in a clause (David Crystal – The Cambridge Encyclopeadia of the English Language, 1995). So, a phrase is just a group of words forming a grammatical unit which can appear in different places in a clause or a sentence and hold various functions one of which is apposition whose function indicates the relation between two or more phrases (appear in the same clause or sentence) of the same reference and the same grammatical status. In fact, when studying English grammar, appositive phrases are not focused as much as the other phrases. Moreover, they are sometimes mistaken to relative phrases which cause lots of difficulties to language learners. A detail study about appositive phrases, therefore, may partially deal with those problems and suggest some ways of acquiring and applying the so-called English appositive phrases. Also, it is important to remember that some particularities could be recognized easily through analysis done with the target language (English) but the others that could not be touched upon if the research is done with the target language only, will be found out and clarified if a contrastive analysis (based on both target language and source one, which is Vietnamese in this case) is implemented. It means a comparison between two languages is necessary throughout the study. That is the reason for contrastive analysis trend of the study. Additionally, as this study focuses on the appositive function a phrase takes in a clause or a sentence, functional grammar in contact with syntax may be the best choice to follow among plenty of schools of grammar. With syntax and functional grammar, the construction, the specific functions that an appositive phrase takes and the relationship between it and other elements of a clause or a sentence could be put in a closer and a more detail view. Therefore, functional grammar and syntax are the main stream of our study. With al the above mentioned, we have come to the decision of doing “A study of appositive phrases in English in comparison to Vietnamese”. %&'($)The study, as entitled, focuses on English appositive phrases in comparison to Vietnamese ones not only about the structure but also about the use. Thus, the study is aimed at: Identifying and pointing out the nature of English appositive phrases through functional grammar with basic concepts such as noun phrases, references and then coming to clarify structures and types of appositive phrases in English. Giving the description and characteristics of English appositive phrases and their equivalent realizations in Vietnamese to work out the similarities and differences between the two languages in terms of both theory and practice. *+(,-$$.Due to the duration of time limit and the length as well as the references available, this thesis does research on English appositive phrases in sentences in contrast to Vietnamese equivalents and concentrates mainly on the materials and documents available to students at  High School (especially their textbooks and practice books) and also the errors those students may encounter in using English appositive phrases in writing. /$-$$.Due to the main aims of the study, a systemic contrastive analysis on the aspects of function of the two languages is carried out throughout the progress. Also, the thesis makes use of the English language as the target language and the Vietnamese one as the source language (the base language). Besides, techniques on statistics, on systemic functional analysis and on error analysis are applied as well. In order to serve the targets stated before, a linguistic contrastive analysis is carried out mainly on the phrase level with the focus on Noun Phrases as well as on the sentence level. The sources for the analysis are from materials and references written by linguists in English and in Vietnamese as well as some bilingual reference books available in Vietnam. This will help to make clear both the similarities and the differences between two language systems (English and Vietnamese). The use of translationally equivalent structures of English and Vietnamese allow the differences and similarities of appositive phrases in the two languages to be detected so that some reasonable predictions can be extracted. Moreover, a survey of the use of appositive phrases is in process with the help of 100 students from Nh©n ChÝnh High School and the application of statistic techniques to confirm the predictions. 0-$$.This study consists of three parts, excluding the appendixes and the references. Part one, Introduction, consists of the background for the study, the aims, the scope of the study and the method of study. It also introduces a literature review about the history of the subject studied, different concepts about schools of grammar. Part two, Development, is the heart of the study which deals with appositive phrases in English and in Vietnamese under the influence of functional grammar, syntax and contrastive analysis. This part is divided into three chapters coping with functional grammar (in Halliday’s theory) and syntax, appositive phrases in the two languages, and an investigation done on appositive phrases respectively. The last part is the conclusions as well as some suggestions for implementation achieved from all the discussion in the thesis. The appendixes show the exercises used in the survey done to compare appositive phrases in English and in Vietnamese. $(&(1!$.-$&'($$.: Appositive phrases are not very important grammatical unit both in English and in Vietnamese. However, linguists in general and grammarians in particular still pay much attention to this type of phrase, especially when study English. Discussions about appositive . I wish to acknowledge my gratitude to teachers at Hanoi National University – College of Foreign Languages whose lectures on the area of grammar have enlightened. which lacks the subject-predicate structure found in a clause (David Crystal – The Cambridge Encyclopeadia of the English Language, 1995). So, a phrase
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