... Comprehensive ** Dictionary ** ** of ** ** Physics ** Dipak Basu Editor-in-Chief Forthcoming ** and ** PUBLISHED VOLUMES ** Dictionary ** ** of ** Pure ** and ** Applied ** Physics ** Dipak Basu ** Dictionary ** ** of ** ** Material ** ** Science ** ** and ** ** High ** ** Energy ** ** Physics ** ... Basu ** Dictionary ** ** of ** Geophysics, Astrophysics, ** and ** Astronomy Richard A Matzner © 20 **01 ** by CRC Press LLC a Volume in the Comprehensive ** Dictionary ** ** of ** ** PHYSICS ** ** DICTIONARY ** ** OF ** ** Material ** ** Science ** ** and ** ** High ** ** energy ** ... The ** Dictionary ** ** of ** ** Material ** ** Science ** ** and ** ** High ** ** Energy ** ** Physics ** (DMSHEP) is one ** of ** the three major volumes being published by CRC Press, the other two being ** Dictionary ** ** of ** Pure ** and ** Applied ** Physics ** and...

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... momentum J2 We require the components ** of ** J1 to commute with those ** of ** J2 We deﬁne J = J1 + J2 , ** and ** if states |J M > are angular momentum eigenstates ** of ** J2 ** and ** Jz , then |J M >= < j2 m2 j1 m1 ... relative angles ** of ** the outgoing particles, which leaves two independent variables These may be taken as the energies ** of ** two ** of ** the particles, E1, E2, ** and ** E3 ** Energy ** is conserved so that E1 + E2 + E3 = ... theorem is ** of ** great value in understanding magnetic ions in crystals degeneracy, lifting ** of,** or removal ** of ** Slight inequality ** of ** ** energy ** ** of ** a group ** of ** quantum states due to the presence ** of ** a perturbation,...

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... conservation ** of ** ** energy ** ** and ** momentum density ** of ** modes The number ** of ** modes ** of ** the radiation ﬁeld in an ** energy ** range dE The density ** of ** modes is a function ** of ** the boundary conditions ** of ** the space ... average ** energy ** ** of ** an initial distribution ** of ** neutrons will decrease over time, ** and ** the width will increase (diffuse): D = λv **/3 ** , where v/λ is the number ** of ** collisions ** of ** the neutron per unit ** of ** time, ... represent the two spin states ** of ** a positive ** energy ** particle, ** and ** the lower two components represent the two spin states ** of ** the corresponding negative ** energy ** particle (anti-particle) Dirac hole theory...

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... >= kB T Cv ** energy ** gap The ** energy ** range between the bottom ** of ** the conduction band ** and ** the top ** of ** the valence band in a solid ** energy ** level The discrete eigenstates ** of ** the Hamiltonian ** of ** an atomic ... Stark shift) ** energy ** spectrum The set ** of ** ** energy ** eigenstates ** of ** a physical system The set ** of ** possible outcomes ** of ** a measurement ** of ** the ** energy;** also known as the set ** of ** allowed energies ** energy-** time ... closely spaced points ** and ** not on the path between them exchange ** energy ** ** Part ** ** of ** the ** energy ** ** of ** a system ** of ** many electrons (or any other type ** of ** fermion) that depends on the total spin ** of ** the system So...

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... wavelength, g1 ** and ** g2 are degeneracies ** of ** lower ** and ** excited states, N1 ** and ** N2 are the number ** of ** atoms in the lower ** and ** excited states, ν ** and ** νo are ﬁeld ** and ** atomic frequency, ** and ** δνo is the Lorentzian ... percentage ** of ** the uranium isotope 2 **35 ** to about 3% from the natural abundance ** of ** the uranium isotopes, which include 234 U at 0 **055** %, 35U at 0.72 %, ** and ** 38U at 99.27% Nuclear fuel composed ** of ** 3.2% 2 **35 ** U ... number ** of ** particles in S is allowed to ﬂuctuate while the total number ** of ** particles in the entire system is constant ** and ** ** energy ** is conserved, the system is called a grand canonical ensemble grand partition...

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... are made ** of ** heterojunctions A heterojunction is made ** of ** layers ** of ** two different types ** of ** materials which are doped by p ** and ** n types ** of ** atoms For example, layers ** of ** n ** and ** p type GaAs ** and ** AlGaAs ... ratio ** of ** the number ** of ** events ** of ** this type per unit ** of ** time ** and ** per ** of ** unit scatterer to the ﬂux ** of ** the incident particles is deﬁned as the inelastic cross-section where B is the span ** of ** the ... terms ** of ** the principal quantum numbers ni ** and ** nf ** of ** the initial ** and ** ﬁnal ** energy ** levels, respectively, the ** energy ** ** of ** the emitted photon is determined from the following Eν = Ei − Ef = −13.6eV 1...

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... = m11 m22 is the reduced mass for particles +m ** of ** mass m1 ** and ** m2 , ** and ** r = r1 − r2 are the relative position vectors ** of ** particles ** and ** Suitable sets ** of ** center **-of-** mass coordinates can be similarly ... in a ﬂow ﬁeld kinetic ** energy ** A form ** of ** ** energy ** associated with motion Every moving particle has kinetic ** energy ** The kinetic ** energy ** ** of ** a non-relativistic particle with mass m ** and ** speed v is equal ... rotation ** of ** the axes ** of ** reference These conditions are not typical in real ﬂows On the other hand, assumptions ** of ** isotropic ** and ** homogeneous turbulence have led to understanding ** of ** many aspects ** of ** turbulent...

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... equilibrium left-handed particle A particle whose spin is antiparallel to the direction ** of ** its momentum See handedness Lehmann representation In the quantum many-particle problem, a standard technique ... conservation ** of ** the lepton number have never been observed level In the context ** of ** nuclear or atomic ** physics,** it usually denotes an ** energy ** level, namely, one ** of ** the allowed (quantized) values ** of ** the ** energy ** ... width The ** energy ** ** of ** a small quantum system is quantized ** and ** is represented as an ** energy ** level In many cases, the system is dynamically coupled with a large degree ** of ** freedom Then the ** energy ** ** of ** the...

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... representation ** of ** SU(3), is the octet representation ** of ** SU(3), ** and ** is the singlet representation ** of ** SU(3) Each ** of ** these representations contains a number ** of ** particles equivalent to the number ** of ** the ... p in an intrinsic semicon- ductor ** of ** ellipisoidal ** energy ** surfaces ** of ** masses m1 , m2 , ** and ** m3 for the conduction band, ** and ** m1 , m2 , ** and ** m3 for the valence band, is given by (m1 m2 m3 ) m1 m2 ... density ** of ** occupation in ** energy ** The term f (ε)g(ε) plotted as a function ** of ** ** energy,** ε, represents the total number ** of ** particles in the system occupation number The number ** of ** identical particles...

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... quantization ** of ** electric charge in units ** of ** the electron charge e, ** of ** angular momentum in units ** of ** the Planck constant h/2π , ** and ** ** of ** ** energy ** ** of ** the electromagnetic ﬁeld in units ** of ** hν, where ν ... the number ** of ** degrees ** of ** freedom ** of ** a thermodynamic system, f , the number ** of ** intensive parameters to be varied, I , the number ** of ** phases, φ, the number ** of ** components, c, ** and ** the number ** of ** independent ... is a linear function ** of ** its frequency was the origin ** of ** the understanding, due to A Einstein, ** of ** light as consisting ** of ** quanta ** of ** ** energy ** E = hν, where ν is the frequency ** and ** h is Planck’s constant...

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... ** energy ** ** of ** a particle ** and ** produces a signal that is proportional to the absorbed ** energy ** The system ** of ** deposition ** of ** ** energy ** depends on the kind ** of ** detected particles ** High ** ** energy ** photons deposit ** energy ** ... wave function A function ** of ** the coordinates ** of ** the particles ** of ** a system ** and ** ** of ** time which is a solution ** of ** the Schrödinger equation ** and ** which determines the average result ** of ** every conceivable experiment ... spatial evolution ** of ** the wave function ** of ** a quantum particle ih ¯ h2 ∂ψ ¯ = − ∇ + V (r, t) ψ ∂t 2m The left side gives the total ** energy ** ** of ** the particle ** and ** the right side consists ** of ** two terms:...

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... vacuum modes standard theory ** and ** standard model ** of ** particle ** physics ** According to this theory, all matter is made up ** of ** quarks ** and ** leptons, which interact by the exchange ** of ** gauge particles There ... Intrinsic angular momentum ** of ** an elementary particle or nucleus, which is independent ** of ** the motion ** of ** the center ** of ** mass ** of ** the particle spin–ﬂip scattering Scattering ** of ** a particle with intrinsic ... separated into two parts: the constant ** energy ** term made from single particle energies ** and ** the interaction between them ** and ** the binding ** energy ** ** of ** active nucleons in the core This second ** part ** is made...

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... ) Here, i ** and ** f denote initial ** and ** ﬁnal ¯ states, Vint ** and ** ω0 denote the amplitude ** and ** frequency ** of ** the excitation, ** and ** Ei,f is the ** energy ** ** of ** the initial ** and ** ﬁnal states Depiction ** of ** a transmission ... attack ** of ** the thin airfoil theta particle (meson) Discovered in the Crystal Ball collaboration among products ** of ** decay ** of ** psi particles Ii has a mass ** of ** 1640 MeV ** and ** an angular moment ** of ** two This particle ... problem ** of ** understanding the motions ** of ** particles in a plasma **(and ** the related ﬂows ** of ** ** energy,** momentum, ** and ** other physical quantities) is extremely important in many, if not all, areas ** of ** plasma...

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... the tension ** of ** the strings Each vibrational mode ** of ** strings corresponds to some particle The vibrational frequency ** of ** the mode ** of ** the string determines the ** energy ** ** of ** that particle ** and,** hence, ... electromagnetic interaction ** of ** charged beam particles ** and ** metallic surfaces ** of ** the beam chamber These ﬁelds can change trajectory ** of ** beam particles Wake ﬁelds depend on geometry ** and ** ** material ** ** of ** the chamber ... the n-type ** material ** ** and ** a large negative voltage to the p-type ** material)** , the edge ** of ** the valence band in the p-type ** material ** can rise above the edge ** of ** the conduction band in the ntype material...

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