# lecture 2

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## Lecture 2 ArithCode

... (0.10110111101100000101 )2 20 bits 0.71753375 < 0.71753407… < 0.71753500 b) Codelength m: m=-log2(r) = -log2(0.0000 125 ) = 19.6 =20 bits c) Bitrate: R =20 bits/10 chars = 2. 0 bits/char • Huffman coder: (1+3 +2+ 1+1+4+4 +2+ 1+1)/10 =2. 2 ... 2/ 10=0 .2 1/10=0.1 1/10=0.1 [C(si), C(si+1)) [0.5, 1.0) [0.4, 0.5) [0 .2, 0.4) [0.1, 0 .2) [0.0, 0.1) Example 1: Encoding S W I M 0.5 0.1 0 .2 0.1 0.1 [0.5, 1.0) [0.4, 0.5) [0 .2, 0.4) [0.1, 0 .2) ... m=-log2r = -log2(0.0000 125 ) = 19.6 =20 bits Example 1: Compression (2) • Entropy = 1.96 bits/char • Arithmetic coder: a) Codeword V: L ≤ V < H V = (0.71753407…)10 = (0.10110111101100000101)2...
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## Lecture 2 Wireless Environment and Wireless LANs

... GHz Wireless Environment and Wireless LANs Wireless Spectrum (3) Wireless LAN (IEEE 8 02. 11b/g) • 2. 4 GHz 30 MHz 300 MHz Wireless LAN (IEEE 8 02. 11a) • GHz GHz Bluetooth • 2. 45 GHz Wireless Environment ... Spectrum Wireless Environment and Wireless LANs Agenda (2) Wireless networks ■ Mobile wireless WANs ■ Fixed wireless WANs ■ WLANs: the 8 02. 11 family ■ WLANs/WPANs: Bluetooth ● IEEE 8 02. 11 ■ Characteristics ... services Wireless Environment and Wireless LANs 41 Distribution Systems and Access Points BSS STA STA AP DS ESS BSS STA AP STA Wireless Environment and Wireless LANs 42 Integration with Wired LANs...
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## Modulation and coding course- lecture 2

... quantization levels and Lecture 10 Quantization example amplitude x(t) 111 3.1867 Quant levels 110 2. 27 62 101 1.3657 100 0.45 52 boundaries 011 -0.45 52 010 -1.3657 001 -2. 27 62 xq(nTs): quantized ... Quantization noise variance: ∞ 2 σ = E{[ x − q( x)] } = ∫ e ( x) p( x)dx = σ Lin + σ Sat q σ −∞ L / −1 Lin =2 l =0 ql2 p ( xl )ql Uniform q 12 Lecture σ Lin q2 = 12 13 Uniform and non-uniform quant Uniform ... Interference and noise immunity Implementation cost and complexity Lecture 19 Spectra of PCM waveforms Lecture 20 M-ary pulse modulation M-ary pulse modulations category: M-ary pulse-amplitude modulation...
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## Tài liệu lecture 2: Communication Concepts ppt

... transmission It is the mode of communication used on a PC’s serial port as well as on local area networks lecture 2.doc Page (3) CSN200 Introduction to Telecommunications, Fall 1999 Lecture_ 02 Point-to-point ... predominant method of transferring information in data communications Data bits are sent serially or sequentially bit-by-bit over a single wire or communications circuit Sending bits one after another ... CSN200 Introduction to Telecommunications, Fall 1999 Lecture_ 02 Parallel vs Serial Transmission: Parallel: In parallel transmission all...
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## Tài liệu Lecture 2: HỆ ĐẾM-CƠ SỐ ppt

... Chuyển từ số hệ số B sang thập phân HỆ CƠ SỐ     Binary: hệ nhị phân (dùng kí số 0,1) Decimal: Hệ thập phân(dùng kí số 0,1…,9) Octave: Hệ bát phân (Dùng kí số 0,1, 7) Hexadecimal: Hệ thập lục ... SỐ NHỊ PHÂN, MỨC LOGIC  Hệ thống số thường dùng hệ thập phân dùng 10 kí số: 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9  Hệ nhị phân sử dụng kí số  Trong hệ thống số, logic gọi HIGH (mức cao) ... + 2.10 −2 Chuyển số có phần nguyên phần phân hệ số B sang hệ thập phân: ( PN PN −1 P0 P−1 P−2 P− M ) B = PN B N + PN −1B N −1 + + P0 B + P−1B −1 + + P− M B − M Chuyển đổi số Thập phân  nhị...
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## Tài liệu Kinh tế ứng dụng_ Lecture 2: Simple Regression Model ppt

... Written by Nguyen Hoang Bao May 20, 2004 Applied Econometrics 10 Simple Linear Regression Model Workshop 2: Simple Regression Models 1) Retrieve data file AIDSAV.WK1, which contains the data ... -60.0 -80.0 Foreign Aid as per cent of GDP Figure 7 .2: Written by Nguyen Hoang Bao May 20, 2004 Applied Econometrics Simple Linear Regression Model Residual Plot (S/Y-S/Yfit) versus A/Y 40 Residual ... underlying variable should appear in the regression model as the independent variable 3) Standard errors of the regression and coefficients The standard error of the regression (s) is given as follows:...
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## lecture 2 spectroscopy

... Solution C x 105 M Io I Thioketone -C =S 330 A 2. 23 100 27 Nitrite -NO2 23 0 B 1.90 100 32 Conjugated Diene -C=C-C=C- 23 3 Conjugated Triene -C=C-C=C-C=C- 26 8 Conjugated Tetraene -C=C-C=C-C=C-C=C- Benzene ... and should be avoided R2 = 0.995 20 .0 40.0 60.0 concentration (uM) Chromophoric Structure Practice Examples Group Structure nm Carbonyl >C=O 28 0 Azo -N = N- 26 2 Nitro -N=O 27 0 Solution C x 105 ... the following table [X](M) Absorbance Transmittance(%) E(L/mole-cm) 30 20 00 0.5 25 00 0 .2 2.5 x 10-3 4.0 x 10-5 50 5000 150 2. 0 x 10-4 L(cm) 1.00 1.00 1.00 [X](M) = Concentration in Mole/L The molar...
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## CMOS VLSI Design - Lecture 2: Circuits & Layout docx

... CLK 1: Circuits & Layout Q CMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed CLK 34 D Flip-flop Operation D QM Q CLK = D QM Q CLK = CLK D Q 1: Circuits & Layout CMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed 35 Race Condition  Back-to-back ... 1: Circuits & Layout CMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed 24 Multiplexers  2:1 multiplexer chooses between two inputs S S D1 D0 Y X 0 X 1 X 1 X 1: Circuits & Layout D0 Y D1 CMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed 25 Gate-Level ... Ed 12 CMOS Gate Design  Activity: – Sketch a 4-input CMOS NOR gate A B C D Y 1: Circuits & Layout CMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed 13 Complementary CMOS  Complementary CMOS logic gates – nMOS pull-down...
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## Digital Communication I: Modulation and Coding Course-Lecture 2 potx

... features of digital communication systems Some basic concepts and definitions such as as signal classification, spectral density, random process, linear systems and signal bandwidth Lecture 2 Today, ... Quantization noise variance: ∞ 2 σ = E{[ x − q( x)] } = ∫ e ( x) p( x)dx = σ Lin + σ Sat q σ Lin −∞ L / −1 =2 l =0 ql2 p ( xl )ql Uniform q 12 Lecture σ Lin q2 = 12 13 Uniform and non-uniform quant  ... rate, M-ary PAM (M >2) requires less bandwidth than binary PCM For a given average pulse power, binary PCM is easier to detect than M-ary PAM (M >2) Lecture 21 PAM example Lecture 22 ...
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## Lecture 2: Object Oriented Programming docx

... Procedural vs Object- Oriented Programming  The unit in procedural programming is function, and unit in object- oriented programming is class  Procedural programming concentrates on ... operations that manipulate the data, while object- oriented programming focus on both of them figure1: procedural figure2: object- oriented Concept of Class and Object  “Class” refers to a blueprint ... concentrates on creating functions, while object- oriented programming starts from isolating the classes, and then look for the methods inside them  Procedural programming separates the data of the...
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## Lecture 2: Object Oriented Programming in Java ppt

... reading Object -Oriented Programming Concepts http:/ /java. sun.com/docs/books/tutorial /java/ concepts/index.html Object and Classes in Java http:/ /java. sun.com/docs/books/tutorial /java/ javaOO/index.html ... import java. util.*; import java. sql.*; java. sql.Date today = new java. sql.Date( ); java. util.Date nextDay = new java. util.Date( ); 12 See this code: import java. lang.Math; public class importTest ... import java. sql.*; Date today = new Date( ); //ERROR :java. util.Date //or java. sql.Date?  if you only need to refer to one of them, import that class explicitly import java. util.*; import java. sql.*;...
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## Lecture 2: Quy trình công nghệ yêu cầu (RE - The requirements engineering) pdf

... nghĩa yêu cầu cần xem xét kỹ lưỡng Nó phải sửa chữa theo vấn đề 10 Phân tích yêu cầu phần mềm Quản lý yêu cầu Quản lý yêu cầu tiến trình quản lý thay đổi yêu cầu suốt quy trình công nghệ yêu cầu ... tính chung cho quy trình : Thu thập yêu cầu (Requirements elicitation) Phân tích yêu cầu (Requirements analysis) Kiểm chứng yêu cầu (Requirements validation) Quản trị yêu cầu (Requirements management) ... tích yêu cầu phần mềm Kết luận Các hoạt động quy trình công nghệ yêu cầu không đơn giản để thực cách mà chúng phải lặp lặp lại Phân tích yêu cầu tiếp tục suốt trình định nghĩa đặc tả Các yêu cầu...
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## Digital Circuit Design - Lecture 2 pptx

... CMOS design 9 /25 /089 /25 /08 – ECE 561 Lect ECE 561 - Lecture 2Copyright 20 08 - Joanne DeGroat, ECE, OSU Timing diagram for a D Latch 9 /25 /089 /25 /08 – ECE 561 Lect ECE 561 - Lecture 2Copyright 20 08 ... 9 /25 /089 /25 /08 – ECE 561 Lect ECE 561 - Lecture 2Copyright 20 08 - Joanne DeGroat, ECE, OSU 19 K Maps for the toggle F/Fs T1 = x’y2 + x y2’ = x xor y2 9 /25 /089 /25 /08 – ECE 561 Lect ECE 561 - Lecture ... ECE 561 - Lecture 2Copyright 20 08 - Joanne DeGroat, ECE, OSU Timing for a D Flip-Flop  Important to note relationships 9 /25 /089 /25 /08 – ECE 561 Lect ECE 561 - Lecture 2Copyright 20 08 - Joanne...
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