Marcro micro econmiy david begg chapter 028

Chapter 028. Sleep Disorders (Part 1) docx

Chapter 028. Sleep Disorders (Part 1) docx
... define sleep and wakefulness is termed polysomnography Polysomnographic profiles define two states of sleep: (1) rapid-eyemovement (REM) sleep, and (2) non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep NREM sleep ... mid-afternoon nap and a shortened night sleep Two principal systems govern the sleep- wake cycle: one actively generates sleep and sleep- related processes and another times sleep within the 24-h day Either ... class of sleep and arousal disorders has been identified Physiology of Sleep and Wakefulness Most adults sleep 7–8 h per night, although the timing, duration, and internal structure of sleep vary...
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Chapter 028. Sleep Disorders (Part 2) pps

Chapter 028. Sleep Disorders (Part 2) pps
... slow-wave sleep may be completely absent, particularly in males A different age profile exists for REM sleep than for slow-wave sleep In infancy, REM sleep may comprise 50% of total sleep time, ... progressive decline in the amount of slow-wave sleep, and the amplitude of delta EEG activity comprising slow-wave sleep is profoundly reduced The depth of slow-wave sleep, as measured by the arousal threshold ... amount of REM sleep falls off sharply over the first postnatal year as a mature REM-NREM cycle develops; thereafter, REM sleep occupies a relatively constant percentage of total sleep time Neuroanatomy...
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Chapter 028. Sleep Disorders (Part 3) pot

Chapter 028. Sleep Disorders (Part 3) pot
... architecture of sleep are directly coupled to the output of the endogenous circadian pacemaker Paradoxically, the endogenous circadian rhythms of sleep tendency, sleepiness, and REM sleep propensity ... These rhythms are thus timed to oppose the homeostatic decline of sleep tendency during the habitual sleep episode and the rise of sleep tendency throughout the usual waking day, respectively Misalignment ... Entrainment of mammalian circadian rhythms by the light-dark cycle is mediated via the retinohypothalamic tract, a monosynaptic pathway that links specialized, photoreceptive retinal ganglion...
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Chapter 028. Sleep Disorders (Part 4) ppsx

Chapter 028. Sleep Disorders (Part 4) ppsx
... incidence of NREM sleep dream recall can be increased by selective REM sleep deprivation, suggesting that REM sleep and dreaming per se are not inexorably linked Physiologic Correlates of Sleep States ... during REM sleep Respiratory function also changes In comparison to relaxed wakefulness, respiratory rate becomes more regular during NREM sleep (especially slow-wave sleep) and tonic REM sleep and ... phasic REM sleep Minute ventilation decreases in NREM sleep out of proportion to the decrease in metabolic rate at sleep onset, resulting in a higher P CO2 Endocrine function also varies with sleep...
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Chapter 028. Sleep Disorders (Part 5) potx

Chapter 028. Sleep Disorders (Part 5) potx
... condition, if sleep, possible; dopamine predisposing agonists (e.g., medical pramipexole, ropinirole) conditions condition (e.g., iron deficiency or renal failure) Disturbe d Sleep- wake sleep, diary ... falling asleep while driving Patients with excessive sleepiness should be advised to avoid all driving until effective therapy has been achieved Completion by the patient of a day-by-day sleep- work-drug ... diagnosis of specific disorders such as narcolepsy and sleep apnea and may be of utility in other settings as well In addition to the three electrophysiologic variables used to define sleep states and...
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Chapter 028. Sleep Disorders (Part 6) doc

Chapter 028. Sleep Disorders (Part 6) doc
... prior to sleep or a bedroom environment that is not conducive to sleep Noise or light in the bedroom can interfere with sleep, as can a bed partner with periodic limb movements during sleep or ... co-morbid medical and psychiatric disorders All insomnias can be exacerbated and perpetuated by behaviors that are not conducive to initiating or maintaining sleep Inadequate sleep hygiene is characterized ... time it has taken to fall asleep Drugs that act on the central nervous system, large meals, vigorous exercise, or hot showers just before sleep may all interfere with sleep onset Many individuals...
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Chapter 028. Sleep Disorders (Part 7) potx

Chapter 028. Sleep Disorders (Part 7) potx
... sleep and reduced sleep continuity In mania and hypomania, sleep latency is increased and total sleep time can be reduced Patients with anxiety disorders tend not to show the changes in REM sleep ... substantially reduce hypoxia during sleep Comorbid Insomnia Insomnia Associated with Mental Disorders Approximately 80% of patients with psychiatric disorders describe sleep complaints There is considerable ... in bed to be equal to their perceived total sleep time This will generally produce sleep deprivation, greater sleep drive, and, eventually, better sleep Time in bed can then be gradually expanded...
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Chapter 028. Sleep Disorders (Part 8) pot

Chapter 028. Sleep Disorders (Part 8) pot
... gene (Chap 3 78) Insomnia Associated with Other Medical Disorders A number of medical conditions are associated with disruptions of sleep The association is frequently nonspecific, e.g., sleep disruption ... the sleep disordered breathing Treatment of the sleep apnea may substantially improve the angina and the nocturnal sleep quality Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea can also occur as a consequence of sleep- associated ... night, especially during sleep In addition, treatment of asthma with theophylline-based compounds, adrenergic agonists, or glucocorticoids can independently disrupt sleep When sleep disruption is...
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Chapter 028. Sleep Disorders (Part 9) pot

Chapter 028. Sleep Disorders (Part 9) pot
... the cause of disturbed sleep When deemed to be the latter, PLMS is called PLMD PLMS occurs in a wide variety of sleep disorders (including narcolepsy, sleep apnea, REM sleep behavior disorder, ... Division of Sleep Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital.) Evaluation of Daytime Sleepiness Daytime impairment due to sleep loss may be difficult to quantify for several reasons First, sleepiness ... necessarily proportional to subjectively assessed sleep deprivation In obstructive sleep apnea, for example, the repeated brief interruptions of sleep associated with resumption of respiration...
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Chapter 028. Sleep Disorders (Part 10) pot

Chapter 028. Sleep Disorders (Part 10) pot
... results in chronic sleep disruption (e.g., sleep apnea in hypothyroidism) or in abnormal sleep (e.g., fibromyalgia) While clinical evaluation of the complaint of excessive sleepiness is usually ... such as hypothyroidism (Chap 335) or Addison's disease (Chap 336) While patients with these disorders can typically distinguish their daytime symptoms from the sleepiness that occurs with sleep deprivation, ... an index of the adequacy of sleep can be made with the multiple sleep latency test (MSLT), which involves repeated measurement of sleep latency (time to onset of sleep) under standardized conditions...
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Chapter 028. Sleep Disorders (Part 11) ppt

Chapter 028. Sleep Disorders (Part 11) ppt
... typically with MSLT mean sleep latencies ...
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Chapter 028. Sleep Disorders (Part 12) ppt

Chapter 028. Sleep Disorders (Part 12) ppt
... Both sleep terrors and sleepwalking represent abnormalities of arousal In contrast, nightmares occur during REM sleep and cause full arousal, with intact memory for the unpleasant episode Sleep ... one-third of cases Sleep Terrors This disorder, also called pavor nocturnus, occurs primarily in young children during the first several hours after sleep onset, in stages and of NREM sleep The child ... agitation or even violence Sleepwalking arises from stage or NREM sleep, usually in the first hours of the night, and is most common in children and adolescents, when these sleep stages are most robust...
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Chapter 028. Sleep Disorders (Part 13) pps

Chapter 028. Sleep Disorders (Part 13) pps
... and sleep (stage sleep) in the absence of adequate processing of sensory input from the environment Motor vehicle operators are especially vulnerable to sleep- related accidents since the sleep- deprived ... profoundly sleepy at night In fact, their sleep latencies during night work average just min, comparable to mean sleep latency durations of patients with narcolepsy or severe daytime sleep apnea ... travel annually, which is often associated with excessive daytime sleepiness, sleep onset insomnia, and frequent arousals from sleep, particularly in the latter half of the night Gastrointestinal...
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Chapter 028. Sleep Disorders (Part 14) doc

Chapter 028. Sleep Disorders (Part 14) doc
... as increasing the risk of sleeprelated errors and performance lapses to a level that is unacceptable in nonemergency circumstances Delayed Sleep Phase Disorder Delayed sleep phase disorder is characterized ... patients, although the relapse rate is high Advanced Sleep Phase Disorder Advanced sleep phase disorder (ASPD) is the converse of the delayed sleep phase syndrome Most commonly, this syndrome occurs ... treatment for the excessive sleepiness during night work in patients with SWD Although treatment with modafinil significantly increases sleep latency and reduces the risk of lapses...
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Chapter 028. Sleep Disorders (Part 15) pdf

Chapter 028. Sleep Disorders (Part 15) pdf
... from studying human sleep disorders Nature 437:1279, 2005 [PMID: 16251953] Malhotra A, White DP: Obstructive sleep apnoea Lancet 360:237, 2002 [PMID: 12133673] Mignot E et al: Sleeping with the ... wakefulness: Dose-response effects on neurobehavioral functions and sleep physiology from chronic sleep restriction and total sleep deprivation Sleep 26:117, 2003 Young MW et al: Time zones: A comparative ... in liver and heart Nature 417:78, 2002 [PMID: 11967526] Tafti M et al: Genes for normal sleep and sleep disorders Ann Med 37:580, 2005 [PMID: 16338760] Trenkwalder C et al: The restless legs syndrome...
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