# Fundamentals Of Global Positioning System Receivers

## Fundamentals of Global Positioning System Receivers A Software Approach - Chapter 1 docx

... 10 9 10 9 11 0 11 1 11 4 11 5 11 5 11 7 11 9 12 1 12 2 12 3 12 6 12 7 12 9 13 0 13 1 13 3 13 3 13 4 13 5 13 6 13 7 x CONTENTS 7.6 7.7 7.8 7.9 7 .10 7 .11 7 .12 7 .13 7 .14 Time Domain Correlation Circular Convolution and ... 14 0 14 3 14 4 14 6 14 9 14 9 15 0 15 1 15 6 15 9 16 5 16 5 16 6 16 8 16 9 17 1 17 3 17 5 17 6 17 8 18 0 18 2 18 6 18 8 18 9 19 0 19 0 19 0 19 3 19 3 19 4 19 6 19 8 19 9 200 2 01 CONTENTS 9.8 Typical Values of Ephemeris Data 9.9 ... xv Chapter Introduction 1. 1 1. 2 1. 3 1. 4 1. 5 1. 6 1. 7 Introduction History of GPS Development A Basic GPS Receiver Approaches of Presentation Software Approach Potential Advantages of the Software...
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## Fundamentals of Global Positioning System Receivers A Software Approach - Chapter 2 ppsx

... form as adx dr (2. 14) where dr and dx are vectors, a is a matrix They can be written as dr [dr1 dr2 ··· drn ]T dx [dx u dyu dzu dbu ]T a1 1 a a       21 a3 1 a4 1 a n1 a1 2 a2 2 a3 2 a4 2 a1 3 ... these relations into Equation (2. 52) and solving for r , the result is r2 ΂ cos2 Lco sin2 Lco + a2 b2 e e r2 a2 e [ ΃ r2 ΂ b2 cos2 Lco + a2 (1 − cos2 Lco ) e e a2 b2 e e a2 b2 e e b2 e 1− 1− ae ΂ ... − bu a i3 zi − zu r i − bu (2. 9) The solution of Equation (2. 8) is dx u dyu   dzu dbu a1 1 a2 1  a3 1 a4 1       a1 2 a2 2 a3 2 a4 2 a1 3 a2 3 a3 3 a4 3 − dr1 dr2    dr3 dr4       (2. 10)...
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## Fundamentals of Global Positioning System Receivers A Software Approach - Chapter 3 potx

... ellipse and the circle can be related as QP SP as bs (3. 22) Therefore, the area PSV can be obtained from area PQV as area PSV bs area PQV as bs as [ bs (area OQV − area OQP) as 2 as E − a sin E ... efﬁciency of the antenna and the accuracy of the solid angle of the antenna because the power cannot be cut off sharply at a desired angle If the receiving antenna has a unit gain, the effective area ... “Principle of operation of NAVSTAR and system char- REFERENCES 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 53 acteristics,” Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development (AGARD), Ag-245, pp 4-1 4-1 2, July 1979 Misra,...
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## Fundamentals of Global Positioning System Receivers A Software Approach - Chapter 4 potx

... universal gravitational parameter and is a constant, as and Dn are obtained from ephemeris data From this n value the mean anomaly can be found from Equation (4. 23) as M M + n(t c − t oe ) (4. 34) where ... idot: rate of inclination angle 4. 12 SUMMARY This chapter takes the satellite position calculated in Chapter and transforms it into an earth-centered, earth-ﬁxed coordinate system because this ... the WGS- 84 value of the earth’s universal gravitational parameter ˙ Q ie 7.292115 146 7 × 10 − rad/ sec, which is the WGS- 84 value of the earth’s rotational rate p 3. 141 5926535898 c 2.9979 245 8 ×...
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## Fundamentals of Global Positioning System Receivers A Software Approach - Chapter 5 pps

... Almanac data: The almanac parameters provided in subframes and ˙ are: es , t oa , Q , as , Q e , q, M , af , and af The almanac data are much less accurate than the detailed ephemeris data of ... indication of the transmitting satellite The MSB (bit 77) indicates a summary of the health of the navigation data, where bit 77 equals: All navigation data are OK Some or all navigation data are bad ... second row shows a navigation data bit that has a data rate of 50 Hz; thus, a data bit is 20 ms long and contains 20 C/ A codes Thirty data bits make a word that is 600 ms long as shown in the...
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## Fundamentals of Global Positioning System Receivers A Software Approach - Chapter 6 pps

... data and the software is written to process real data If a software receiver is designed to process complex data and only real data are available, the real data can be changed to complex data ... degradation of the signal-to-noise ratio Spilker(11) indicated that a 1-bit ADC degrades the signal-to-noise ratio by 1. 96 dB and a 2-bit ADC degrades the signal-to-noise by 0.55 dB Many commercial ... used because of the availability of ampliﬁers In Figure 6. 5b, the M/ A COM ANP-C-11 4-5 antenna with ampliﬁer is used Ampliﬁer is an integrated part of the antenna with a 26 dB gain and a 2.5 dB noise...
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## Fundamentals of Global Positioning System Receivers A Software Approach - Chapter 7 pdf

... cannot detect a weak signal Longer data records are needed to acquire a weak signal As mentioned in Sections 7. 4 and 7. 5, an increase in the data length can require many more operations One way ... data length The advantage of this approach is the improvement in signal-to-noise ratio One simple explanation is that an FFT with ms of data produces a frequency resolution of 500 Hz in comparison ... set of data, the next ms of data will not have a data transition Therefore, in order to guarantee there is no data transition in the data, one should take two consecutive data sets to perform acquisition...
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## Fundamentals of Global Positioning System Receivers A Software Approach - Chapter 8 pps

... points of satellites for 81 ms of data are listed in Table 8. 1 These values are the input data points that represent the beginning of a C/ A code For each satellite the data points are separated ... to track 20 ms of data without a navigation data phase transition, one must ﬁnd a phase transition in the data This requirement puts an additional restraint on the acquisition program The acquisition ... tracking ms of data If the data length is longer than 20 ms, it may contain a phase transition due to the navigation data The phase transition will disturb the operation of the tracking program...
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## Fundamentals of Global Positioning System Receivers A Software Approach - Chapter 9 potx

... Section 9. 6 The ﬁrst navigation data point can be padded with data points of the same sign to make the ﬁrst navigation data point always occur at 21 ms This approach creates one navigation data point ... srvy8210; angmat ang; ptnumat transpt; rymkmat ﬁntime; [st navd] navdat(angmat); ∗ﬁnd naviga data (20ms) & ﬁrst angle 224 GPS SOFTWARE RECEIVERS transition [point, navdata] matsubf(navd); ∗ﬁnd start ... ephermeris data clear angmat navd rymkmat load d:/ gps/ big data/ srvy8310; angmat ang; ptnumat transpt; rymkmat ﬁntime; [st navd] navdat(angmat); ∗ﬁnd naviga data (20ms) & ﬁrst angle transition...
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## The Global Positioning System doc

... locations of the GPS satellites as seen by the receiver(s), plays a very important role in the total positioning accuracy [5] The better the satellite geometry strength, the better the obtained positioning ... separation between the two receivers, the more similar the errors and biases Therefore, if we take the difference between the measurements collected at these two GPS receivers, the 24 Introduction ... result of the changes in the suns radiation and the Earths magnetic field For example, the F1 layer disappears during the night and is more pronounced in the summer than in the winter [14] The question...
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## Luận văn hệ thống định vị vệ tinh có sửa phân sai DGPS (Differential Global Positioning System )

... dựng hệ thống định vị toàn cầu năm 1960 Các hệ thống định vị đ ợc thực giới hệ thống NAVSTA, hệ thống GLONASS 2.2.1 Hệ thống NAVSTA Hệ thống định vị toàn cầu GPS đợc sử dụng phổ biến giới hệ thống ... giả: Nguyễn Văn Duy Chơng II Tổng quan hệ thống định vị Định vị dẫn đờng từ lâu sống Ngời ta đa nhiều phơng pháp định vị giới thiệu số hệ thống định vị dẫn đờng 2.1 Các hệ thống định vị dẫn đờng ... (định vị ) phải hiểu theo nghĩa: Đợc định vị theo hệ quy chiếu định Với mục đích hệ định vị toàn cầu ,hệ thống GPS phải xác định sử dụng hệ quy chiếu thống toàn cầu Hệ quy chiếu đợc sử dụng hệ...
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## Introduction to GPS The Global Positioning System - Part 1 pot

... II-2 13 B-3 Cs II- 21 39 A -1 II-4 19 19 A-5 Cs II-22 35 B-4 Cs II-5 17 17 D-3 Cs II-23 34 D-4 Rb II-8 21 21 E-2 Cs II-24 36 C -1 Cs II-9 15 15 D-5 Cs II-25 33 C-2 Cs II -1 0 23 23 E-5 Cs II-26 40 10 ... · 12 9 13 1 13 2 13 3 13 4 13 5 13 8 13 9 14 0 14 2 14 4 14 6 14 7 14 9 15 0 15 1 Contents xi 11 Other Satellite Navigation Systems 15 5 11 .1 11. 2 11 .3 11 .4 11 .4 GLONASS satellite system ... E-3 Cs II -1 1 24 24 D -1 Cs II-27 30 30 B-2 Cs II -1 2 25 25 A-2 Cs II-28 38 A-3 Rb II -1 4 26 26 F-2 Rb IIR-2 43 13 F-3 Rb Cs II -1 5 27 27 A-4 Cs IIR-3 46 11 D-2 Rb II -1 6 32 F-4 Cs IIR-4 51 20 E-1...
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## Introduction to GPS The Global Positioning System - Part 2 docx

... and L2, and the navigation message) However, after the AS activation, the P-code was encrypted to Y-code This means that the receiver cannot output either the P-code or the L2 carrier using the ... its unique 1-week segment of the P-code For example, a GPS satellite with an ID of PRN 20 refers to a GPS satellite that is assigned the twentieth-week segment of the PRN P-code The P-code is designed ... (95% of the time) or better [5] The addition of the C/A-code to L2, although it improves the autonomous GPS accuracy, was found to be insufficient for use in the civil aviation safety-of-life applications...
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## Introduction to GPS The Global Positioning System - Part 3 pot

... circles Figure 3. 8 shows the sky plot for Toronto on April 13, 2001, which was 33 0 N 30 30 0 60 W 270 90 E 120 240 210 150 180 S Figure 3. 8 GPS sky plot for Toronto on April 13, 2001 GPS Errors and ... precision of the GPS positioning at the one-sigma (1-s) level To obtain the precision at the 2-s level, sometimes referred to as approximately 95% of the time, we multiply the results by a factor of ... security, the U.S DoD 30 Introduction to GPS implemented the so-called selective availability (SA) on Block II GPS satellites to deny accurate real-time autonomous positioning to unauthorized users...
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