... **A ** ** Discourse ** ** Analysis ** ** of ** ** Book ** ** Reviews ** ** in ** ** English ** ** and ** ** Vietnamese** 1.2 AIMS ** AND ** OBJECTIVES 1.2.1 Aims The study aims to find out the typical ** discourse ** features ** of ** ** Book ** ** Reviews ** ** in ** ** English ** ** and ** ** Vietnamese ** ... Great Britain, The United States ** of ** America, Canada, ** and ** Vietnam 3.5 DATA ** ANALYSIS ** Collected data will be mainly analyzed on the basis ** of ** the following points: Layout, lexical features, syntactic ... evaluation, ** and ** the thing evaluated the part or aspect ** of ** the ** book ** evaluated The evaluative category is ** a ** category which actually evaluates the thing evaluated, ** and ** the evaluating response is the evaluator’s...

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... operating ** and ** ﬁnancing ** proﬁtability ** ** and ** overall shareholder ** proﬁtability ** 1.1 Distinguishing the ** Proﬁtability ** ** of ** Operations from the ** Proﬁtability ** ** of ** Financing Activities With a focus on common equity ... expected ** proﬁtability ** ** of ** the book value, ** and ** ** leverage ** affects ** proﬁtability ** So our empirical ** analysis ** investigates the effect ** of ** ** leverage ** on both ** proﬁtability ** ** and ** ** price-to-book ** ** ratios ** Or, stated ... implications ** of ** the two types ** of ** ** leverage ** for ** proﬁtability ** ** and ** equity value The paper has laid out explicit leveraging equations that show ** how ** shareholder ** proﬁtability ** is related to ﬁnancing ** leverage ** and...

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... By ** the ** user's request, ** the ** ** book ** ** reading ** ** machine ** can read ** the ** same ** sentence ** again and again If ** the ** user wants to change ** the ** way of ** reading ** ( e.g in ** the ** case that there are homographs ), ** the ** ** machine ** ... two kana character sets ~ Hiragana and Katakana are used in ** Japanese ** sentences ) and alphanumeric characters Because of ** the ** variety of characters, even when using ** a ** well-established character ... Conclusion ** A ** ** sentence ** ** analysis ** ** method ** used in ** a ** ** Japanese ** ** book ** ** reading ** ** machine ** has been described Input sentences, where each character is allowed to have other candidates, are analyzed by using several...

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... method ** of ** inference ** and ** conﬁdence interval construction can improve on asymptotic ** analysis ** Volume ** of ** the Handbook ** of ** Econometrics ** and ** Volume 11 ** of ** the Handbook ** of ** Statistics contain nice surveys ** of ** ... available in Volume ** of ** the Handbook ** of ** Econometrics—see Powell (1994) ** and ** Hardle ** and ** Linton (1994)—as well as in ¨ Volume 11 ** of ** the Handbook ** of ** Statistics—see Horowitz (1993) ** and ** Ullah ** and ** Vinod (1993) ... ** Econometric ** ** Analysis ** ** of ** ** Cross ** ** Section ** ** and ** ** Panel ** ** Data ** Je¤rey M ** Wooldridge ** The MIT Press Cambridge, Massachusetts London, England Contents Preface Acknowledgments xvii xxiii I INTRODUCTION AND...

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... summary ** of ** properties ** of ** conditional expectations ** 1.** 2 ** 1.** 2 **.1 ** The Stochastic Setting ** and ** Asymptotic ** Analysis ** ** Data ** Structures In order to give proper treatment to modern ** cross ** ** section ** ** and ** ** panel ** ** data ** ... asymptotic ** analysis ** with these kinds ** of ** ** panel ** ** data ** sets is still in its early stages, ** and ** it requires special limit theory See, for example, Quah **(19** 94), Pesaran ** and ** Smith **(19** 95), Kao **(19** 99), ** and ** Phillips ... In ** cross ** ** section ** ** analysis ** the asymptotics is as the number ** of ** observations, denoted N throughout this ** book,** tends to inﬁnity Usually what is meant ** by ** this statement is obvious For ** panel ** ** data ** ** analysis,** ...

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... Expectations ** and ** Related Concepts in Econometrics 15 Eðy j x1 ; x2 Þ ¼ b0 þ b1 x1 þ b2 x2 þ b x2 **2:** 3Þ Eðy j x1 ; x2 Þ ¼ b0 þ b1 x1 þ b2 x2 þ b x1 x2 **2:** 4Þ Eðy j x1 ; x2 Þ ¼ exp½b þ b1 logðx1 Þ þ b2 x2 ... b3 z **2:** 23Þ but where z is unobserved ** By ** the LIE, ** and ** the linearity ** of ** the CE operator, Eðy j x1 ; x2 Þ ¼ Eðb0 þ b x1 þ b2 x2 þ b3 z j x1 ; x2 Þ ¼ b þ b1 x1 þ b x2 þ b3 Eðz j x1 ; x2 Þ **2:** 24Þ Now, ... Eðy j x1 ; x2 Þ ¼ b0 þ b1 x1 þ b2 x2 þ b x1 x2 ** and ** deﬁne z1 x1 x2 Then, from Property CE.3, Eðy j x1 ; x2 ; z1 Þ ¼ b þ b1 x1 þ b x2 þ b3 z1 **2:** 46Þ The right-hand side ** of ** equation **(2.** 46) is also...

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... lemma ** and ** Lemma ** 3.** 8 [with R CðyÞ to get equation **(3.** 8) Problems ** 3.** 1 Prove Lemma ** 3.** 1 ** 3.** 2 Using Lemma ** 3.** 2, prove Lemma ** 3.** 3 ** 3.** 3 Explain why, under the assumptions ** of ** Lemma ** 3.** 4, gðxN Þ ¼ Op ð1Þ ** 3.** 4 ... Theory ** 3.** 5.2 **43 ** Asymptotic Properties ** of ** Test Statistics We begin with some important deﬁnitions in the large-sample ** analysis ** ** of ** test statistics definition ** 3.** **13:** (1) The asymptotic size ** of ** a testing ... The method ** of ** establishing equation **(3.** 8), given that statement **(3.** 3) holds, is often called the delta method, ** and ** it is used very often in econometrics It gets its name from its use ** of ** calculus...

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... ** 4 ** 4.1 The Single-Equation Linear Model ** and ** OLS Estimation Overview ** of ** the Single-Equation Linear Model This ** and ** the next couple ** of ** chapters cover what is still the ... FQ; NÀK random variable ** by ** dividing it ** by ** Q **(and ** usu^ ally making the degrees **-of-** freedom adjustment to V) But there is nothing wrong with using equation **(4.** 13) directly ** 4.** 2 **.4 ** Lagrange Multiplier ... CovðxK ; eK Þ ¼ **4:** 43Þ **74 ** ** Chapter ** From equation **(4.** 42), if assumption **(4.** 43) is true, then eK must be correlated with Ã the unobserved variable xK To determine the properties ** of ** OLS in this case,...

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... equation **(5.** 11) ** and ** the law ** of ** large numbers We consider a more general case in ** Section ** ** 5.** 2.1 When searching for instruments for an endogenous explanatory variable, conditions **(5.** 3) ** and ** **(5.** 5) are ... Þ=ðx1 À x0 Þ where y0 ** and ** x0 are the sample averages ** of ** yi ** and ** xi over the part ** of ** the sample with zi ¼ 0, ** and ** y1 ** and ** x1 are the sample averages ** of ** yi ** and ** xi over the part ** of ** the sample with zi ... full set ** of ** estimates, including standard errors ** and ** t statistics, can be found in Card (19 **95)** Or, you can replicate Card’s results in Problem ** 5.** 4 90 ** 5.** 1.2 ** Chapter ** Multiple Instruments: Two-Stage...

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... structure, ** panel ** ** data,** which we treat starting in ** Chapter ** Brieﬂy, in a ** panel ** ** data ** set we follow the same group ** of ** individuals, ﬁrms, cities, ** and ** so on over time In a pooling ** of ** ** cross ** sections over ... ** cross ** ** section ** ** data ** ** 6.** 3.1 Pooled ** Cross ** Sections over Time A ** data ** structure that is useful for a variety ** of ** purposes, including policy ** analysis,** is what we will call pooled ** cross ** sections over time ... level? ** 6.** 7 For this problem use the ** data ** in HPRICE.RAW, which is a subset ** of ** the ** data ** used ** by ** Kiel ** and ** McClain (1995) The ﬁle contains housing prices ** and ** characteristics for two years, 1978 and...

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... single ** cross ** ** section ** A ** panel ** ** data ** set also allows us to control for unobserved ** cross ** ** section ** heterogeneity, but we will not exploit this feature ** of ** ** panel ** ** data ** until ** Chapter ** 10 **170** ** 7.** 8.1 ** Chapter ** ... the ** analysis ** ** of ** the pooled OLS estimator for ** panel ** ** data;** see ** Section ** ** 7.** 8 ** 7.** 3.3 Testing Multiple Hypotheses ^ Testing multiple hypotheses in a very robust manner is easy once V in matrix **(7.** 26) ... the variance matrix ** of ** ui conditional on Xi In ** Section ** ** 7.** 5.2 we make an assumption that simpliﬁes equation **(7.** 35) Estimating Systems ** of ** Equations ** by ** OLS ** and ** GLS ** 7.** 5 ** 7.** 5.1 1 **57 ** Feasible GLS Asymptotic...

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... W)? ** 8.** 7 With deﬁnitions **(8.** 14) ** and ** **(8.** 15), show that system 2SLS ** and ** 3SLS are ^ numerically identical whenever W is a diagonal matrix ** 8.** 8 Consider the standard ** panel ** ** data ** model introduced in ** Chapter ** ... formula **(8.** 24) ** 8.** 2 Consider the system ** of ** equations yi ¼ X i b þ u i where i indexes the ** cross ** ** section ** observation, yi ** and ** u i are G Â 1, Xi is G Â K, Zi is the G Â L matrix ** of ** instruments, ** and ** b ... total number ** of ** time periods) Therefore, the following ** analysis ** applies to ** panel ** ** data ** models where T is small relative to the ** cross ** ** section ** sample size, N; for an example, see Problem ** 8.** 8 We cover...

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... IV ** 9.** 9 Use the ** data ** in MROZ.RAW for this question a Estimate equations **(9.** 28) ** and ** **(9.** **29)** jointly ** by ** 3SLS, ** and ** compare the 3SLS estimates with the 2SLS estimates for equations **(9.** 28) ** and ** **(9.** **29)** ... **(9.** 38), ** and ** applying nonlinear GMM estimation See Lahiri ** and ** Schmidt ( **197** 8) ** and ** Hausman, Newey, ** and ** Taylor ( **198** 7) Simultaneous Equations Models ** 9.** 4.3 2 **29 ** Subtleties Concerning Identiﬁcation ** and ** ... structural equations **(9.** 4) ** and ** **(9.** 5) Given equation **(9.** 4) ** and ** the reduced form **(9.** 6), we can now use the identiﬁcation condition from ** Chapter ** for a linear model with a single right-hand-side endogenous...

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