Soil Mechanics - Arnold Verruijt

SOIL MECHANICS - CHAPTER 1 docx

SOIL MECHANICS - CHAPTER 1 docx
... of Engineers (KIvI), with about 10 00 members 1. 3 Why Soil Mechanics ? Soil mechanics has become a distinct and separate branch of engineering mechanics because soils have a number of special properties, ... foundation of a building For all these problems soil mechanics should provide the basic knowledge Arnold Verruijt, Soil Mechanics : INTRODUCTION 1. 2 History Soil mechanics has been developed in the beginning ... in 19 18 (see Figure 1. 1) gave rise to the first systematic investigation in the field of soil mechanics, by a special commission set up by the government Many of the basic principles of soil mechanics...
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SOIL MECHANICS - CHAPTER 2 pptx

SOIL MECHANICS - CHAPTER 2 pptx
... Cu = D60 D10 (2. 1) In the case of Figure 2. 1 this is about 8.5 This indicates that the soil is not uniform This is sometimes denoted as a well graded soil In a poorly graded soil the particles ... Arnold Verruijt, Soil Mechanics : CLASSIFICATION 2. 4 16 Consistency limits For very fine soils, such as silt and clay, the consistency is an important property It determines whether the soil can easily ... characters to indicate a soil type, see Table 2. 2 A soil of type SM, for instance, is a silty sand, which indicates that it is a sand, but containing considerable amounts of non-organic fine silty particles...
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SOIL MECHANICS - CHAPTER 3 pdf

SOIL MECHANICS - CHAPTER 3 pdf
... saturated, if S = the soil is perfectly dry Arnold Verruijt, Soil Mechanics : PARTICLES, WATER, AIR 3. 3 21 Density For the description of the density and the volumetric weight of a soil, the densities ... the legend Arnold Verruijt, Soil Mechanics : PARTICLES, WATER, AIR 3. 4 22 Volumetric weight In soil mechanics it is often required to determine the total weight of a soil body This can be calculated ... size on the porosity? Arnold Verruijt, Soil Mechanics : PARTICLES, WATER, AIR 24 3. 6 Using the data indicated in Figure 3. 3, determine the volume of the soil on the bottom of the measuring glass,...
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SOIL MECHANICS - CHAPTER 4 ppt

SOIL MECHANICS - CHAPTER 4 ppt
... at Arnold Verruijt, Soil Mechanics : STRESSES IN SOILS 27 the extreme right in Figure 4. 3 resembles a soil body, with its pore space It can be concluded that the water in a soil satisfies the principles ... instance a photo-elastic or a piezo-electric effect), but in order to study the deformation of soils it is not useful Terzaghi’s notion that the soil Figure 4. 5: Effective stress ... = σij + p δij , (4. 5) in which δij is the Kronecker delta, or the unit matrix Its definition is δij = als i = j, als i = j (4. 6) Arnold Verruijt, Soil Mechanics : STRESSES IN SOILS 29 Calculating...
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SOIL MECHANICS - CHAPTER 5 docx

SOIL MECHANICS - CHAPTER 5 docx
... Verruijt, Soil Mechanics : STRESSES IN A LAYER 5. 4 36 Solve the same problem if the depth of the water is 15 m And when it is 100 m 5. 5 A certain soil has a dry volumetric weight of 15. 7 kN/m3 ... total stresses, effective stresses and pore pressures is shown in Figure 5. 5 Again there will be a tendency Arnold Verruijt, Soil Mechanics : STRESSES IN A LAYER ... with the depth below the phreatic surface When the soil is very fine a capillary zone Arnold Verruijt, Soil Mechanics : STRESSES IN A LAYER 35 may develop above the phreatic surface, in which...
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SOIL MECHANICS - CHAPTER 6 pps

SOIL MECHANICS - CHAPTER 6 pps
... perpendicular to the x-direction, qx = Q/A, see Figure 6. 4 This quantity is expressed in m3 /s Arnold Verruijt, Soil Mechanics : DARCY’S LAW 40 per m2 , a discharge per unit area In the SI-system of units ... be small Substitution of equations (6. 4) into (6. 3) gives ∂p µ + qx = 0, ∂x κ ∂p µ + qy = 0, ∂y κ ∂p µ + γw + qz = ∂z κ (6. 6) In contrast with equations (6. 1), which may be used for an infinitely ... Arnold Verruijt, Soil Mechanics : DARCY’S LAW 41 for the no flow case The equations (6. 6) can also be written as κ ∂p qx = − ( ), µ ∂x κ ∂p qy = − ( ), µ ∂y κ ∂p qz = − ( + γw ) µ ∂z (6. 7) These equations...
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SOIL MECHANICS - CHAPTER 7 docx

SOIL MECHANICS - CHAPTER 7 docx
... the dam Arnold Verruijt, Soil Mechanics : PERMEABILITY 7. 2 47 Falling head test For soils of low permeability, such as clay, the normal permeability test shown in Figure 7. 1 is not suitable, because ... follows that Q= Q = −a Figure 7. 2: Falling head test dh dt (7. 5) (7. 6) Elimination of Q from these two equations gives dh kA =− h dt aL (7. 7) h = h0 exp(−kAt/aL) (7. 8) This is a differential equation ... Arnold Verruijt, Soil Mechanics : PERMEABILITY 46 Type of soil k (m/s) gravel 10−3 − 10−1 sand 10−6 − 10−3 silt 10−8 − 10−6 clay 10−10 − 10−8 Table 7. 1: Hydraulic conductivity k...
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SOIL MECHANICS - CHAPTER 8 ppt

SOIL MECHANICS - CHAPTER 8 ppt
... balanced by a decrease of the flow in z-direction Substitution of (8. 1) into (8. 2) leads to the differential equation Figure 8. 1: Continuity ∂2h ∂2h + = 0, (8. 3) ∂x2 ∂z where it has been assumed ... the situation shown in Figure 8. 1, in which both the flow in x-direction and the flow in z-direction increase in the direction of flow, is impossible If the flow in x-direction increases, the element ... here the total stresses are σzz = −γs z, (8. 5) Arnold Verruijt, Soil Mechanics : GROUNDWATER FLOW 52 where γs is the volumetric weight of the saturated soil (about 20 kN/m3 ) In the case of a critical...
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SOIL MECHANICS - CHAPTER 9 pdf

SOIL MECHANICS - CHAPTER 9 pdf
... force of the soil above the tunnel is W = (γs − γw )[2Rd + (2 − π/2)R2 ], (9. 9) the difference of the weight of the soil and the weight of the water in the same volume The amount of soil that is ... such a serious calamity Arnold Verruijt, Soil Mechanics : FLOATATION 61 The analysis can, of course, also be performed in the more standard way of soil mechanics stress analysis: determine the ... that the soil above the tunnel remains in place Then the weight of the soil above the tunnel may prevent floatation even if the tunnel is lighter than water (γp < γw ) The weight W of the soil above...
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SOIL MECHANICS - CHAPTER 10 doc

SOIL MECHANICS - CHAPTER 10 doc
... be verified by substitution of eqs (10. 5) into (10. 4) Ψ2 Φ1 It follows from (10. 5) that the flow is precisely in x-direction if the value of Ψ is constant in x-direction This can be checked by noting ... the x-direction coincides with the direction of flow, the value of qz is It then follows from (10. 2) and (10. 5) that in that case Φ is constant in z-direction, and that Ψ is constant in x-direction ... which the Arnold Verruijt, Soil Mechanics : 10 FLOW NET 64 flow is in x-direction only In such a point q = qx = −∆Ψ/∆z, or ∆Ψ = −q ∆z In general one may write ∆Ψ = −q ∆n, (10. 8) where n denotes the...
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SOIL MECHANICS - CHAPTER 11 doc

SOIL MECHANICS - CHAPTER 11 doc
... the solution (11. 4) with respect to r This gives dh Q0 = dr 2πkHr (11. 6) This means that the specific discharge in r-direction is, using Darcy’s law, qr = −k dh Q0 =− dr 2πHr (11. 7) The total ... influence on the groundwater head in the Arnold Verruijt, Soil Mechanics : 11 FLOW TOWARDS WELLS 71 point just between the two wells? 11. 2 A well in a circular area of radius 1000 m appears to ... boundary (r = R), and r is a polar coordinate, r = x2 + y (11. 5) That the expression (11. 4) indeed satisfies the differential equation (11. 3) can be verified by substitution of this solution into...
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