Grammar and vocabulary for cambridge advanced and proficiency

Grammar and Vocabulary for Cambridge Advanced and Proficiency - Adjectives and adverbs

Grammar and Vocabulary for Cambridge Advanced and Proficiency - Adjectives and adverbs
... fuii~ We can also form some adverbs from nouns by adding -1 y: hour hourly part partly Adjectives and adverbs with the same form Some adjectives have the same form when they are adverbs: Adjective ... fine The plane swooped low Some adjectives end in -ly, like monthly and early, and have the same form as adjective and adverb Others can't be transformed into adverbs Instead we have to use a ... examples of adjectives used afier verbs: awake content asleep aware glad afraid alive sure alone alike FORMING ADVERBS FROM ADJECTIVES We can turn most adjectives into adverbs by adding -1 y (see...
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Grammar and Vocabulary for Cambridge Advanced and Proficiency - Determaners and pronouns

Grammar and Vocabulary for Cambridge Advanced and Proficiency - Determaners and pronouns
... c that life was rnuch easier and more cornfortable when (18)of thern could utter anything more than 'goo-goo' and 'da-da' and (19) rny wife and ould settle down for a rneal without feeling ... others, or other's Left-handedness is a fascinating phenomenon unless you are trying to undo a knot that a left-handed person has tied the (1) way round It is surprising that left-handers have not ... With this meaning, we use some in positive sentences, and any in negatives and questions Some and any as pronouns We use some and any as pronouns: on their own to replace a noun: '1 didn't bring...
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Grammar and Vocabulary for Cambridge Advanced and Proficiency - Emphasis

Grammar and Vocabulary for Cambridge Advanced and Proficiency - Emphasis
... was will-power that enabled me to win sheer full utter c This is the thing was dreading one very sheer INTENSIFYING AND EMPHASISING d Deliberate handball is cheating outright out -and- out comprehensive ... subject When there is no obvious subject for the sentence, we generally use There before nouns or noun phrases and It before adjectives and noun clauses: > Xfs-eekt;tsttm2 J It's cola, isn't it? ... f 5-0 is a win in anybody's book comprehensive confirmed complete g He was reprimanded for his stupidity crass very utter h Giving his nephew the job was favouritism out -and- out...
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Grammar and Vocabulary for Cambridge Advanced and Proficiency - Linking clauses

Grammar and Vocabulary for Cambridge Advanced and Proficiency - Linking clauses
... closed down -1 NG CLAUSES We can use an -ing form after (ever) since, after, before, while, when, whenever: Since reading that artide, Colin's refused to eat red meat AJter waitingfor agesfor a table, ... notice Expressing purpose and efect RESULT, CAUSE AND EFFECT Apart from linking clauses, we can express purpose and result in other ways PURPOSE AND INTENTION We can use vocabulary items with meanings ... bear Ladies and gentlemen, boys and girls, friends - If we can stand (1) and not give (2) to pressure, if we can keep standing up (3) what we believe in and not cave ...
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Grammar and Vocabulary for Cambridge Advanced and Proficiency - Modal verbs 1

Grammar and Vocabulary for Cambridge Advanced and Proficiency - Modal verbs 1
... Modals come before the infinitive form of a verb without to (except ought to): rnay meet her tomorrow (see Watch out! opposite) Modals never change form They not have -ed, -S, or -ing endings: ... rnay join us Modals never use when forming questions or negatives To form negatives we use not after the modal and before the verb: Will you come? You mustn't worry so much We can use modals with ... know beforehand that you couldn't come GRAMMAR SECTION Necessity, duty and advice NECESSITY We use must and mustn't when we decide for ourselves what's necessary: You mustn't keep asking for my...
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Grammar and Vocabulary for Cambridge Advanced and Proficiency - Modal verbs 2

Grammar and Vocabulary for Cambridge Advanced and Proficiency - Modal verbs 2
... MODAL VERBS OVERVIEW For basic grammar information for modals, see Unit 3, Overview MAlN USES OF MODALS Here is a list of uses dealt with in this Unit with examples For other uses, ... timefor dinner (For an alphabetical list of modals with their meanings, see pages 6 4-6 7.) me h i d be late MEANINGS O F MODAL VERBS Here is a quick reference to the meanings of moda1 verbs For ... done for you Dear Marie, Thank you for arranging this fortnight here for me I know how busy you've been with the day- h (O)-day running of the office (1) usual, your choice of course for...
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Grammar and Vocabulary for Cambridge Advanced and Proficiency - Noun clauses

Grammar and Vocabulary for Cambridge Advanced and Proficiency - Noun clauses
... colloquialisms: hang-up send-up fry-up sha ke-up cover-up wind-up Some phrasal verbs have forms that we use as adjectives: a stand-up comedian a put-up job a get-out ciause give-away prices throwaway ... to decide once and for al1 what is to with juvenile offenders SECTION To-infinitive and -ing cliuses POSlTlONS IN A SENTENCE We can use to-infinitive clauses and -ing clauses in similar ... give-away prices throwaway lines There are only a few three-word noun phrases deriving from phrasal verbs: a put-you-up hand-me-downs a pick-me-up a For each of the sentences below, write a new sentence...
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Grammar and Vocabulary for Cambridge Advanced and Proficiency - Nouns and articles

Grammar and Vocabulary for Cambridge Advanced and Proficiency - Nouns and articles
... absent-minded big-headed good-looking short-lived These may collocate with particular nouns: cold-blooded murder clear-cut case run-down area shop-soiled goods flat-footed al1 -around athlete keep-fit fanatic ... hand A bird in hand is worth two in bush They lived from hand to mouth He gained upper hand They walked along hand in hand On other hand, perhaps he was right @ CRAMMAR SECTION Adjectives and ... whole truth and nothing but the truth (= about what happened) NOUNS WITHOUT ARTICLES We use uncountable and plural nouns without articles to refer to general ideas and categories: Cars and buses...
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Grammar and Vocabulary for Cambridge Advanced and Proficiency - Passives

Grammar and Vocabulary for Cambridge Advanced and Proficiency - Passives
... improve eyesight.) PASSIVE -1 NG FORMS We use passive -ing forms (being + -ed) and Perfect passive -ing forms (having been + -ea): afier verbs that are normally followed by -ing forms (see Unit 15): ... imposed on the people to pay for these supposed improvements went back to the hotel, still (12 ) followed by the two policemen, and felt SECTION Infinitives and -ing form passives INFlNlTlVES AFTER ... highest standard b The murderer should for life c The floor had with newspapers and old magazines d i completely and had no idea what had ha~~ened e The building has for demolition...
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Grammar and Vocabulary for Cambridge Advanced and Proficiency - Problem tenses

Grammar and Vocabulary for Cambridge Advanced and Proficiency - Problem tenses
... the forrner would be ' (1 4) like rnad for rniddle-aged has-beens' and ignore up -and- corning young bands who had (1 5) to break into the big time On the other hand, reforrned ... next time-consuming matter surely twinkling nick immemorial kill long-standing time Let's leave it at that for the being and continue tomorrow Slowly but the band is becoming more and more ... emotions and feelings: I'm sorry to have kept you waiting She wasfelt not to have met the standards required PERFECT -1 NG FORMS When talking about results and time, we can use a Perfect -ing form...
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Grammar and Vocabulary for Cambridge Advanced and Proficiency - Relative clauses

Grammar and Vocabulary for Cambridge Advanced and Proficiency - Relative clauses
... in the country @ GRAMMAR SECTION Nominal rela tive clauses WHAT ARE NOMINAL RELATIVE CLAUSES? In nominal relative clauses, the relative pronoun acts like a noun and a linking relative pronoun ... was that the law had recently changed REPLACING RELATIVE CLAUSES -ing forms We can use -ing forms after nouns and pronouns in a 'reduced' defining relative clause: The people sitting at the back ... now wishes but for not @ GRAMMAR Past participles and adjectives SECTION Omitting relative pronouns OMlTTlNG THE RELATIVE PRONOUN In defining relative clauses, we often omit the relative pronoun...
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