... Properties of ** Tree ** ** Adjoining ** ** Grammars ** In 23 rd meeting of Assoc of Computational Linguistics, pages 82-93 July, 1985 Conclusion This paper focusses on the linguistic aspects of the ** relationship ** ** between ** ... consequence of the similarities ** between ** the operations of wrapping and ** adjoining ** It is the roles played by the split point and the foot node that underlies this ** relationship ** When a ** tree ** is used for adjunction, ... elementary trees (instantiated up to lexical items) without need to percolate information up the derivation ** tree ** in an unbounded way Some checking is necessary ** between ** an elementary ** tree ** and an...

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... a base distribution H In Section 2, we sample C multinomials φk from H In the ** inﬁnite ** mixture model we sample an ** inﬁnite ** number of multinomials from H, using the Dirichlet process Formally, given ... document j, while β continues to grow as more documents are sampled ** Inﬁnite ** Trees We now use the techniques from Section to create ** inﬁnite ** versions of each tree model from Section 4.1 Independent ... make the Bayesian independent children model ** inﬁnite ** don’t affect its basic structure, as can be witnessed by comparing the graphical depiction of the ** inﬁnite ** model in Figure with that of the ﬁnite...

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... theory ** The ** ** Shannon-McMillan ** theorem ** on ** ** the ** ** Markov ** ** chain ** has been studied extensively see 2, In ** the ** recent years, with ** the ** development of ** the ** information theory scholars get to study ** the ** ** Shannon-McMillan ** ... comparison between ** the ** arbitrary measure and ** Markov ** measure ** on ** ** the ** ** generalized ** ** Bethe ** tree As corollaries, a class of ** Shannon-McMillan ** ** theorems ** ** for ** arbitrary random ﬁelds and ** the ** ** Markov ** chains ﬁeld ** on ** ... probability ** for ** second-order ** Markov ** chains indexed by a tree In this paper, we study a class of ** Shannon-McMillan ** random ** approximation ** ** theorems ** ** for ** arbitrary random ﬁelds ** on ** ** the ** ** generalized ** ** Bethe ** tree by...

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... self-describing ** sequences ** ** and ** ** the ** ** Catalan ** ** family ** tree Theorem ** The ** full names of ** the ** members of ** the ** ** Catalan ** ** family ** are precisely ** the ** selfdescribing ** sequences ** In other words, they are ** the ** ﬁxed points of ** the ** ... distribution of labels in ** the ** ** Catalan ** ** family ** tree ** and ** ** the ** tree of ** the ** ** sequences ** with unit increase Theorem For r = 0, , n, ** the ** number of n-th generation vertices in ** the ** tree of ** sequences ** with unit ... preserves ** the ** length of ** the ** ** sequences ** ** and ** also their preﬁx order, i.e., a b implies αa αb, for all ** sequences ** a ** and ** b in A In ** the ** sequel, we often deliberately blur ** the ** distinction between ** the ** vertices...

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... ** in ** 50 àmol m2 s1 bins ** between ** ** and ** 50 àmol m2 s1 ** and ** ** in ** 100 àmol m2 s1 bins ** between ** 50 ** and ** 2050 àmol m2 s1 PPFD was simultaneously recorded for ** the ** individuals ** in ** ** the ** understorey ** and ** ** in ** clearing ... irradiance pointing out ** the ** large ** leaf ** plasticity of ** the ** species ** The ** increase ** in ** stomatal density may be related to ** the ** increase ** in ** light, promoting higher carbon gains, or to ** the ** increase ** in ** temperature ... latter ** in ** ** the ** understorey were expected to reach it later ** and ** at a larger height It is likely that ** the ** trees growing ** in ** ** the ** clearing displayed a shorter phase of installation than ** the ** trees ** in ** the...

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... seeds/ha/yr ** of ** B ** berchemiaefolia,** only 406 000 seeds developed into seedlings ** Of ** these seedlings, 630 individuals grew into saplings ** and ** finally only individuals developed into mature trees These results ... some trees are left after harvest to regenerate ** the ** stand, diversity ** of ** their offspring may be affected ** In ** other words, if only a few trees are left to serve as seed parents, then inbreeding ** and ** ... alleles were interpreted by drawing on ** the ** experience gained ** in ** our laboratory from Lack ** of ** genetic ** variation ** ** in ** Korean ** berchemia ** 359 studies ** of ** other angiosperm ** tree ** species ** and ** on ** the ** known subunit...

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... trait ** In ** temperate softwood, ** the ** average ring ** density ** is fundamentally dependent on ** the ** earlywood ** and ** latewood proportion ** and ** ** the ** relative densities ** of ** each ** of ** them Thus, a particular value ** of ** ** density ** ... from various combinations ** of ** ** density ** ** components ** ** and ** then can be manipulated through ** the ** alteration ** of ** one or more ** of ** them Therefore, ** the ** knowledge ** of ** ** the ** genetic control ** of ** those ** components ** will ... ** for ** ** the ** seeding, growth ** and ** ** tree ** form ** of ** ** the ** most important forest species ** of ** Portugal, now complemented ** for ** ** wood ** quality through ** density ** ** In ** this context, ** the ** present investigation does not intend...

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... age ** tree ** basal area ** of ** ** the ** 100 thickest trees per ha.g was considered to represent ** the ** basal area ** of ** ** the ** ** average ** ** dominant ** ** tree ** ** the ** ** dominant ** height h (m), ie, ** the ** height ** of ** ** the ** ** tree ** with a basal ... objective ** of ** this study was also to ** the ** competition type ** of ** ** the ** ** dominant ** ** average ** ** tree:** does ** the ** density ** of ** ** the ** surrounding non **-dominant ** stand have a negative influence on growth ** of ** ** the ** averidentify ... stands **The ** ** dominant ** basal area Purpose ** of ** ** the ** study Diameter growth ** of ** ** the ** ** average ** ** dominant ** ** tree ** ** of ** ** the ** stand has rarely been studied per se In most cases it constitutes only an output ** of ** ** the ** model...

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... functioning ** of ** each method was not deteriorated by ** the ** other ** The ** relationship obtained with ** the ** ** comparison ** ** of ** ** the ** ** two ** ** methods ** over ** the ** whole period (n 589) is presented in figure ** The ** slope ** of ** ** the ** regression ... 2300 and 0400 hours ** The ** ** sap ** ** flow ** rate (F) is calculated lows [2, 10]: as fol- where Cp is ** the ** heat capacity ** of ** ** the ** xylem ** sap ** and dT ** the ** temperature increase ** of ** ** the ** ** sap ** through ** the ** heater This apparatus ... use ** the ** ** two ** ** methods ** in a complementary way and also to compare ** the ** results from ** the ** same stem In this note, a ** methods ** on ** the ** ** of ** ** the ** ** two ** trunk has been ** comparison ** same reported MATERIALS AND METHODS...

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... various ** observation ** methods ** and ** techniques are discussed ** of ** ** A ** ** trench ** ** and ** an ** observation ** ** window ** tested in order to estimate ** root ** ** distribution ** ** and ** growth in ** a ** natural oak-birch stand in central ... must also be cautious in generalizing on sampling technique (small sampling not random, no replicates, etc.) an area basis, was not intended for that area, as our The statistical data showed that ... coordinate the number ** and ** species : the basis ** of ** For quality ** of ** roots was thus obtained This presentation allowed mathematical calculations to be 11 made on the variable &dquo **;root ** density per square...

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... allowing ** the ** distinction ** of ** 22 haplotypes belonging to ** the ** three ** Mediterranean ** cpDNA lineages known as E1, E2 and E3 ** The ** discriminating power ** of ** cpDNA ** variation ** was particularly low for ** the ** cultivated ... Page ** of ** 11 Figure ** Plastid ** ** DNA ** ** variation ** ** in ** ** the ** ** Mediterranean ** ** olive ** trees A Distribution ** of ** ** the ** cpDNA haplotypes ** in ** cultivated ** olive ** trees (see also Additional file for ** the ** list ** of ** cultivars and ** the ** ... germplasm ** The ** low ** variation ** ** in ** ** the ** cultivated ** olive ** tree indicated that ** the ** utility ** of ** cpDNA ** variation ** for forensic analyses is limited to rare haplotypes ** In ** contrast, ** the ** high cpDNA ** variation ** ** in ** wild...

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