... rigorously determined That is – ** uncertainty ** is already introduced by the definition ** of ** ** pH ** [6, 10, 16] However, ** in ** ** routine ** ** pH ** determination this fundamental ** uncertainty ** (which ** in ** the case ** of ** the NBS ... ** uncertainty ** originating directly from the operation ** of ** ** measurement ** ** of ** the unknown solution It includes the following components: Repeatability ** of ** ** pH ** ** measurement ** ** Uncertainty ** originating from the finite ... it into account only with E1 and E2 This is one ** of ** the most important sources ** of ** ** uncertainty ** ** in ** ** pH ** measurements [18, 19] According to the philosophy ** of ** BIPM and the ISO ** measurement ** uncertainty...

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... approximate the ** uncertainty ** ** by ** taking the two end ** points ** on the calculated ** uncertainty ** curve and use the straight line containing those ** points ** as the ** uncertainty ** ** In ** this example, the ** uncertainty ** for ... ** of ** the ** uncertainty ** We begin ** with ** an explanation ** of ** how our ** uncertainty ** evaluations are made Following this general discussion we present a number ** of ** detailed examples The general outline ** of ** ** uncertainty ** ... ** uncertainty ** ** of ** the mean ** of ** 10 to 50 wrings ** of ** our master blocks Customer calibrations are limited to wrings because ** of ** time and financial constraints The standard deviation ** of ** the mean ** of ** n measurements...

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... layer is computed ** using ** equation 13 (13) www.intechopen.com ** Estimation ** ** of ** ** uncertainty ** ** in ** ** predicting ** ** ground ** ** level ** ** concentrations ** ** from ** ** direct ** ** source ** ** releases ** ** in ** ** an ** ** urban ** ** area ** ** using ** the USEPA’s AERMOD ... www.intechopen.com ** Estimation ** ** of ** ** uncertainty ** ** in ** ** predicting ** ** ground ** ** level ** ** concentrations ** ** from ** ** direct ** ** source ** ** releases ** ** in ** ** an ** ** urban ** ** area ** ** using ** the USEPA’s AERMOD model equations 185 Fig ** Uncertainty ** and Sensitivity ... www.intechopen.com ** Estimation ** ** of ** ** uncertainty ** ** in ** ** predicting ** ** ground ** ** level ** ** concentrations ** ** from ** ** direct ** ** source ** ** releases ** ** in ** ** an ** ** urban ** ** area ** ** using ** the USEPA’s AERMOD model equations 181 Sets Height of...

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... overall pKa value is acceptable as long as the overall pKa value lies within the limits ** of ** ex- panded ** uncertainty ** pKax–U(pKax) pKax+U(pKax) According to this approach the drift ** in ** Table is acceptable ... the amounts and concentrations ** of ** the solutions ** a[** H+] and the ratio ** a[** A–] **/a[** HA] can be calculated and ** a ** Ka (and pKa) value can be calculated for every point ** of ** the ** titration ** curve ** In ** our approach ... main sources ** of ** ** uncertainty ** ** in ** pKa determination Fig ** Uncertainty ** contributions ** of ** the most important input quantities ** of ** pKax at the ** titration ** point Vt=0.8 ferent Vt ** values ** are presented ** in ** Table...

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... ** The ** ** Treatment ** ** of ** ** Uncertainty ** ** in ** ** EPA’s ** ** Analysis ** ** of ** ** Air ** ** Pollution ** ** Rules: ** ** A ** ** Status ** ** Report ** Arthur G Fraas Abstract An understanding ** of ** ** the ** ** uncertainty ** ** in ** benefit and cost estimates is ** a ** critical ... analyses—as well as ** the ** other quantitative analyses developed ** in ** ** the ** RIA **in ** assessing ** the ** ** uncertainty ** ** in ** ** the ** health benefits estimates Qualitative Discussion ** of ** Other Areas ** of ** ** Uncertainty ** EPA ... specific areas ** of ** ** uncertainty ** ** in ** ** the ** ** analysis ** ** of ** health benefits that deserve to be evaluated ** in ** ** a ** quantitative ** uncertainty ** ** analysis ** ** The ** NRC identifies ** The ** NRC ** report ** also noted that “Because ** of ** the...

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... Table 1: Initial test results ** for ** human-machine dialogues, showing task completion and average length the TownInfo corpus ** of ** dialogues, which was collected using the TownInfo human-machine ** dialogue ** ... each attempting tasks ** in ** the TownInfo domain (searching ** for ** hotels and restaurants ** in ** a ﬁctitious town), resulting ** in ** 90 test dialogues The users each attempted tasks with the MDP system ** of ** (Lemon ... trend showing the superiority ** of ** the the MM Q-MDP system, both ** in ** terms ** of ** more tasks being completed and less variability ** in ** overall ** dialogue ** length Thanks to K Georgilla ** for ** training this model...

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... ** Dilemmas ** ** in ** ** the ** ** reliable ** ** estimation ** ** of ** ** the ** ** in-** vitro ** cell ** ** viability ** ** in ** ** magnetic ** ** nanoparticle ** ** engineering: ** ** which ** ** tests ** ** and ** ** what ** protocols? Clare Hoskins1, Lijun Wang*1, Woei Ping Cheng2 ** and ** ... either ** the ** presence ** of ** ** the ** MNPs both intracellular ** and ** on ** the ** membrane ** of ** ** the ** cells or ** the ** nanoparticles themselves interfere with ** the ** reagents ** In ** our experiments, wells with nanoparticles (intracellular ... were occurring between ** the ** assay systems ** and ** ** the ** nanoparticles, resulting ** in ** incorrect ** cell ** ** viability ** evaluation To further understand ** the ** cytotoxic effect ** of ** ** the ** nanoparticles on these cells, reactive...

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... ** of ** factors including an increase ** in ** ** the ** coating diameter upon addition ** of ** ** the ** PEG moiety [33], thus increasing ** the ** stability ** of ** ** the ** nanoparticles ** and ** further shielding ** the ** cells from ** the ** iron oxide ... either ** the ** presence ** of ** ** the ** MNPs both intracellular ** and ** on ** the ** membrane ** of ** ** the ** cells or ** the ** nanoparticles themselves interfere with ** the ** reagents ** In ** our experiments, wells with nanoparticles (intracellular ... [35-38] ** In ** order to achieve a more ** in-** depth understanding ** of ** ** the ** degree ** of ** cytotoxicity ** of ** ** the ** MNPs, we also investigated ** the ** effect ** the ** polymer-coated nanoparticles had on ** the ** integrity ** of ** ** the ** cell...

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... results ** in ** a factorization step as ** in ** the following ** In ** the presence ** of ** rounding errors (or ** in ** case ** of ** near dependence) we obtain entries ** of ** order eB ** in ** place ** of ** the diagonal zero (This even holds ... addresses ** in ** the following columns ** in ** table IV are derived directly from the level codes ** in ** the data (table 77) allocating one equation for each trait within each level pointing to the beginning ** of ** ... pattern ** of ** R + R This part ** of ** B-’ is called the **sparse ** inverse’ ** of ** T B and can be computed cheaply; cf Appendix The use ** of ** the ** sparse ** inverse for the calculation ** of ** the gradient is discussed ** in ** Appendix...

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... performance ** of ** the Erns ** ELISA ** was not influenced by heat inactivation, which can be an advantage ** in ** laboratories where sera are often subject to several analyses and therefore heat-inactivated ... determined ** in ** all sera using ** a ** ** commercial ** indirect ** ELISA ** **(BVDV-** Ab SVANOVIR™, SVANOVA Biotech AB, Uppsala, Sweden) 1.3 Heat inactivated sera To study the influence ** of ** heat inactivation, we selected ** a ** subset ... was estimated by the kappa (k) ratio To estimate the effect ** of ** heat inactivation on the performance ** of ** the ** ELISA ** we evaluated the repeatability ** of ** the test before and after heat inactivation of...

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... detection ** of ** ** highly ** ** polymorphic ** DNA sequences, such as minisatellites (Jeffreys et al, 1985) Depending on the species being studied, problem lies ** in ** finding a ** highly ** ** polymorphic ** system or a combination ... development ** of ** a calibration curve ** using ** defined strains ** of ** chickens Genetics 125, 161-165 success Lewin R (1989) Limits to DNA fingerprinting Science 243, 1549-1551 Lynch M (1988) Estimation ** of ** ** relatedness ** ... ** relatedness ** ** In ** the previous definition, the value ** of ** identity increases with the ** relatedness ** ** of ** individuals Table I gives some values ** of ** identity for common kinship For all situations given in...

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... ** when ** ** only ** data ** from ** these ** generations ** ** are ** available ** In ** ** the ** former case, ** the ** component ** of ** variance estimates ** the ** genetic variance ** in ** ** the ** ** base ** ** population,** and ** in ** ** the ** latter ** the ** genetic variance ** in ** ... Proceeding ** in ** this way, estimates ** of ** ** the ** genetic variance ** in ** ** the ** ** base ** ** population ** ** are ** 10.18 (p 10%) and 10.23 (p = 25%) These values ** are ** very close to ** the ** simulated genetic variance ** in ** ** the ** ** base ** ** population ** ... estimates ** of ** ** the ** genetic variance and ** heritability ** ** in ** ** the ** original ** base ** ** population ** Rather, ** the ** estimates ** of ** these parameters would be those obtained after relaxing selection for several ** generations,** in...

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... field ** of ** strategic management has used ** the ** concepts ** of ** ** uncertainty ** from these disciplines ** and ** applied them to ** the ** issues ** of ** ** the ** ** firm,** including ** the ** existence ** and ** ** the ** boundary ** of ** ** the ** ** firm ** ** Transaction ** ... limited ** role ** ** in ** those topics Therefore, search for a type ** of ** ** uncertainty ** ** in ** ** resource-based ** theory also allows us to compare ** the ** ** role ** ** of ** ** uncertainty ** ** in ** ** the ** two alternative ** theories ** ** of ** ** the ** ** firm ** There ... comparison on ** the ** reasons ** of ** ** the ** existence ** of ** ** the ** ** firm ** leads to ** the ** second comparison on how ** uncertainty ** works ** in ** ** the ** two ** theories ** ** of ** ** the ** ** firm ** ** In ** transactio n ** cost ** economics, ** uncertainty ** exists ** in ** the...

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... studied Uncertainty ** estimation ** ** of ** BEF 137 and volume models (Fig 5) Examining ** the ** sensitivity ** in ** uncertainty ** of ** ** the ** BEF by ignoring ** the ** uncertainty ** in ** stand age increased ** the ** error ** in ** young and ... 60% ** of ** constant intraplot residual variance showed that ** the ** best way to increase ** the ** precision ** of ** BEFs would be ** the ** reduction ** in ** error ** of ** ** the ** ** biomass ** ** In ** ** the ** present study, ** the ** median value ** of ** ** the ** ... assumed ** for ** branch and foliage ** biomass ** ** of ** all forest sites despite ** the ** varying values ** for ** stand age and stocking densities ** The ** decreasing rate ** of ** ** the ** BEF as a function ** of ** age was steeper ** in ** ** the ** Czech...

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... involved gathering ** the ** data for use ** in ** training and testing ** the ** ** neural ** network ** A ** large training data reduces ** the ** risk ** of ** under-sampling ** the ** nonlinear function, but increases ** the ** training time ... learn ** the ** database, and to predict ** the ** properties ** of ** consolidation SELECTION ** OF ** ** STRAIN ** ** RATE ** r= V − Vmin Vmax − Vmin Data Collection Data Normalization Parametric Studies (3) Training and Testing ... verify ** the ** applicability ** of ** MANN model, ** a ** total ** of ** 46 data ** of ** ** the ** consolidation ** test ** results are used 43 learning data are used for training ** the ** ANN model, and ** the ** others are used for ** the ** comparison...

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